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Chem 131, Week 2 notes

by: Christina Notetaker

Chem 131, Week 2 notes CHEM131

Christina Notetaker


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About this Document

These notes cover the second week of the semester, including what Prof. Ondov covered in class and chapter 2 notes from the textbook.
Chemistry I - Fundamentals of General Chemistry
John Ondov
Class Notes
General Chemistry, Chemistry
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christina Notetaker on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM131 at University of Maryland - College Park taught by John Ondov in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Chemistry I - Fundamentals of General Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Maryland - College Park.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
Chem 131 (9/2/16)  Chapter 2: Measurements  2.1  ((Standard units are universal))  Scientific measurements report every digit as true except the estimated last digit,  Eg. 3.141592, all numbers are accurate except for the last 2, which is estimated  Significant figures depend on measuring device.    2.2  accuracy­ the measured values’ closeness to the actual value  precision­ a series of measured values’ closeness to each other  Measurement errors:  random error­ error of being at either extreme caused by unpredictable changes  systematic error­ consistent inaccuracies usually caused by a measurement device    2.3  weight ≠ density  density­ a physical property measuring degree of consistency; commonly expressed as g/cm​  or  3​ 3​ g/mc (1 cm​  = 1 mL)  density = mass/volume weight = mass x gravity  m 3​ d = v  (kg/m​ )*  *SI derived unit  Physical properties:  intensive property­ independent of amount or size; used to identify types of substances  eg. density, temperature, hardness  extensive property­ depends on amount of substance  eg. mass, volume, length    2.4  Fundamental Components of Universe: Mass and Energy  energy­ capacity to do work  work­ force exerted over a distance:  Force F W = displacement =   Δd  (J)    work = change in kinetic energy, aka work­energy theorem:  W  = KE   −KE f   i ​J)        Types of energy:  kinetic energy­ energy possessed while in motion, symbol KE:   1 2 KE  =   mv  2  (J)  potential energy­ stored energy relative to an object’s position, symbol U (J); commonly  expressed as kJ (1kJ=1000J)  thermal energy­ energy associated with temperature; type of kinetic energy; generated by  individual atoms’ or molecules’ motion  heat­ process of transferring thermal energy between substances    Energy Transformations  Law of conservation of energy­ energy is neither created nor destroyed; total quantity of energy  remains constant  ***systems with high potential energy tend to be unstable until released to return to equilibrium  U → KE ​ or​ U → KE +E  thermal     Units of Energy  calorie­ amount of energy required to increase temperature of 1g water by 1℃, symbol cal  ­­6​ 1cal = 4.184J = 1.16 x 10​ kWh    Chemical processes:  exothermic­ system loses energy to surroundings, (­Δ)  endothermic­ system gains energy from surroundings, (+Δ)    2.5  Unit Conversion  dimensional analysis­ using units as a guide to solving problems  conversion factor­ fractional quantity  Given unit × desired unit =  desired unit    given unit   2.6  Problem­Solving Maneuvers  1) Identify the givens­ data and variables provided  2) Identify endpoint­ what to solve for  3) Use a conceptual plan or a visual outline  Eg.   5g CO​  2​e produced from belching cows. How many CO​  atoms do co2​ belch?  Givens: 5g Carbon  Unknown: ? CO​  ato2​  (5g CO​ 2​(12g/mol C + 2(18g/mol) O​  ) = 2​1041 mol CO​   2 (0.1 mol CO​ ) x (6.022 x 10​ ) = 6.3 x 10^22 CO​  atoms  2​ 2​   2.7  mole­ abbrev. mol, amount of material consisting 6.022 x 10​  particles:  23​ (1 mol of atoms = 6.022 x 10​  atoms) ​ 23​ Avogadro’s number­ 6.022 x 10​  particles  (memorize***)  1 mole = number of atoms in exactly 12 g pure Carbon­12:  [12g C = 1mol C atoms = 6.022 x 10​  C atoms] 3​ molar mass­ mass of 1mol of atoms of an element or chemical substance 


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