Intro to Anthropology lectures 8 & 9
Intro to Anthropology lectures 8 & 9 AN 1103
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessieka Little on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AN 1103 at Mississippi State University taught by Professor Darcy Miller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Lecture 8: 9/7/16 ● Major trends between apes and humans: ● Increased brain size compared to other primates ● Reduction in the reduction to the projection of the face and reliance on smell ● Reliance on sight increased ● Reduction in number of teeth ● Increased infant dependence ● Increased dependence on learned behavior ● How do we tell how old something is? ● Laws of Superposition (closer to the surface = younger) and Original Horizontality (sediments have a tendency to be deposited flat or horizontally) ● Paleomagnetism - (pole reversals) ● Biostratigraphy - (index fossils; species prominent in one small window of time, but across large areas) ● Potassium-Argon Dating - (Rate of decay between potassium and argon) ● How do we know what the environment was like? ● Proxy records Ice cores, pollen cores, varves (mud) Geology Paleobotany Fossil Animal Remains ● Lumper vs. Splitter ● A lumper is a person who suppresses variation, and collapses similar specimens into a few categories (i.e. species) ● A splitter is a person who emphasizes variation between specimens, and creates many different categories to account for the variation ● Humanoid development ● Australopithecines ● Homo habilis ● Homo erectus ● Neanderthal ● Anatomically Modern Humans ● Aegyptopithecus ● Ancestral to Old World monkeys and apes ● Projecting face, eyes not set fully forward ● Backward facing Foramen Magnum (quadroped) ● Ardipithecus Ramidus ● First flashes of bi-bedalism ● Proconsul ● East African forests ● Ape-like cranium, teeth, elbow- and shoulder-joints ● Arms, trunk, and hands resemble monkeys ● Mosaic Evolution ● A phenotypic pattern that shows how different traits of an organism, responding to different selection pressures, may evolve at different rates ● Bipedalism - >10-5 mya ● Distinct dentition (huge molars and smaller front teeth) - >4-2 mya ● Expanded brain - > beginning around 2.4 mya ● Culture - > 2.5 mya ● Australopithecines - first bi-pedal species ● Still had long arms in proportion to legs Lecture 9: 9/9/2016 ● Laetoli, Tanzania ● Bi-pedal hominids left footprints in rain-wet volcanic ash about 3.6 million years ago ● Discovered by Mary Leakey ● Australopithecus Africanus ● The Taung Child, found by Raymond Dart (1893-1988) in 1985 ● Long, powerful arms and short legs ● Not completely bi-pedal ● Mostly foraging vegetarians ● Gracile vs. Robust Australopithecines ● Gracile - A. afarensis; A. africanus ● Robust - A. robustus; A. boisei ● Homo Habilis ● "Handy man" - used stone tools ● Gracile ● Longer legs, shorter arms ● Reduced canines and incisors ● More dexterous hands ● Larger brain