His 106: Week 3 Notes
His 106: Week 3 Notes His 106
Popular in The United States Since 1877
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hailey Hansen on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to His 106 at University of Mississippi taught by Jared Heath Roll in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
The Great Upheaval After the events of 1877, Americans experienced more turmoil in the 1880s and 1890s. REMEMBER: Henry George’s question was: Why did progress bring more poverty? This question was the heart of the Great Upheaval. Was it possible to have progress without poverty? What role should government play in balancing capitalism and regulative prosperity? At this time, the federal government didn’t do much but collect tariffs, run a small postal service, and govern small wars. Government was more concerned with where they came from as opposed to bigger issues. Political parties at this time were consumed by the idea of the spoils system, which is giving jobs to political supporters. However, the spoils system was very corrupt. In 1881, President James Garfield was assassinated by Charles Guiteau because Guiteau didn’t get the job he felt he deserved as a political supporter. The Pendleton Civil Service Act was put in to place in 1883, which removed the spoils system. Now, workers had to be qualified to get the job they desired. Answers to George’s Question Andrew Carnegie – “The Gospel of Wealth” o Carnegie believed that the distribution of wealth was how it should be. He felt that the competitive system was the best system. In his eyes, those who fail are incompetent and deserve their failures, and the rich win due to their intelligence and skill. However, he also believed that the rich should be stewards of the nation, and help the weak. He thought that the strong knew what was best for the poor. Charles Graham Sumner – “survival of the fittest” o Sumner applied evolutionary development to society. He felt that the strong should succeed and deserve to be rich, and the weak and poor should be led against a wall, which would lead to the ultimate extinction of the weak. In his eyes, this system brought about the best outcome. This sort of social Darwinism, however, led to racism with the distribution of wealth and power. The difference between the two viewpoints is that Carnegie believed that the rich should help the poor, and Sumner believed that it was an “every man for himself” society. Santa Clara County vs. Southern Pacific Railroad In 1885, the Supreme Court granted corporations protection under the 14 Amendment. REMEMBER: The 14 Amendment granted citizenship to all people born in the U.S. So this means that corporations were now viewed as legal citizens of America. They were now seen as a legal individual. The balance of justice was weighed down on the side of the wealthy – this was not natural selection, but unnatural selection. The Knights of Labor argued that this interference at the highest level to protect the railroads as a citizen was utter bullshit. Knights of Labor Argued for an 8 hour working day. o 8 hour work o 8 hour rest o 8 hour do what we will They felt that the government should help ordinary people against the power of the corporations, against the power of the machine. They were against industrial capitalism. They wanted to restore the nation to an earlier era – to simpler times when people were selfsufficient and in charge of their own work and lives. In 1885, they led a strike against the Jay Gould railroad. They won, and gained better working conditions, higher wages, and shorter hours. In 1886, they led a strike against Gould again, in a strike known as the Great Southwest Strike. The strike spread from Texas all the way to Illinois, but despite this, they lost. o They even led a strike in New York City against the trolley car industry. o They weren’t discouraged by the loss; it inspired more members to join. The membership rose to 750,000 members nationwide. These strikes, industrial warfare, if you will, often became violent. The workers all felt the same sense of urgency. They felt that this could be their last chance to change America. This sense of urgency peaked in Chicago in the summer of 1886. Knights of Labor strikers converged at Haymarket, along with other activists and anarchists. Naturally, the police were there too. A bomb was thrown at the police, so the police fired into the crowd. The ensuing battle increased pressure and the sense of chaos that was felt during the Upheaval. Fear was running rampant. o “Tramps’ Terror” – a hand gun ad in newspapers “Weapon for police, bankers, and household use” “Selfdefense is the first law of nature” Henry George In 1886, he was the United Labor Party mayoral candidate in New York. He finished 2 – ahead of Theodore Roosevelt He wanted to take political power and reorient government away from corporations. Women’s Christian Temperance Union Founded in 1874 by Frances Willard. They had over 100,000 members in the 1880s. They were against alcohol. o They believed that poverty caused alcoholism. They were for the 8 hour work day, labor organization, and women’s right to vote. In their eyes, politics was corrupt because it was run by men. However, women were mothers of society, so they thought they could purify politics. Women are fundamentally different than men, which was why they felt women needed to vote. They could be a counterbalance to men. Successes: o Interstate Commerce Commission (1887) – prohibited rates discrimination on railroads. In other words, it made railroads give fair rates to all. o Sherman AntiTrust Act (1890) – prohibited conspiracies that restrained trade across state lines. This act was aimed at monopolies who wanted to manipulate trade. American Federation of Labor (1886) They accepted capitalism, but they wanted bargaining rights for the union to raise wages, lower hours, and improved working conditions. They spread rapidly by winning strikes, but they limited their membership to mostly white men who were skilled workers. Homestead, Pennsylvania (1892) AFL steelworkers vs. Carnegie Steel The AFL wanted union recognition, so strikers took over the factory. Carnegie sent out armed men known as strikebreakers. A battle ensued, which came to be known as the Battle of Homestead. Carnegie retakes the factory and crushes the AFL. The AFL doesn’t return for another 30 years. Discussion Notes REMEMBER: Henry George’s question was: Why did progress bring more poverty? Carnegie: Gospel of Wealth Rich help the poor Wealthy are trustees of the poor We know better than they do what they need Sumner: Social Darwinism Survival of the fittest Sorry not sorry – poor deserve to be poor Santa Clara County vs. South Pacific Railroad th Protected corporations under the 14 Amendment, making corporations legal individuals. What was previously assigned to living individuals is now assigned to corporations Gave Knights of Labor an argument against government. The Knights of Labor wanted government interaction, but felt that they went too far in the favor of industry. Led to strikes against Jay Gould Railroad – Gould wins the Great Southwest Strike 1886 due to the Santa Clara ruling The Knights of Labor organized themselves politically, but they also had intellectual support to justify actions. Haymarket Riot Strike gone wrong Anarchists and socialists threw a bomb at the police, so the police open fire at the protestors. Feeling of fear – feeling that a revolution was about to happen Pistol advertisement in response to fear Carnegie Strike 1892 American Federation of Labor steel workers vs. Carnegie Women’s Christian Temperance Union (1893) Against alcohol For 8 hour day, women’s right to vote Unregulated Capitalism No government regulation on industries Free market Driven by monopolies – such as railroads or steel Regulating capitalism seeks to create a balance of wealth – creates situation where monopolies cannot create a divide of wealth. People who argued for regulating capitalism argued that it was more efficient and supports social Darwinism.