GY 208, week 3 part 1
GY 208, week 3 part 1 GY 208
Jacksonville State University
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Smith on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GY 208 at Jacksonville State University taught by Larry J. Morgan, Daniel Mcgowan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Map Reading in Geography at Jacksonville State University.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
GY 208 – 9/06/2016 Earth and Earth’s Coordinates Earth as a Sphere • Aristotle said the Earth was round o Stars moved o Ships would “disappear” o Eclipses • Eratosthenes came up with the circumference o Looked down a well through summer solstice and measured a statues shadow The Graticule • Used for location • Hipparchus o Based on Latitude and Longitude § each parallel is equal § each meridian is curved to the poles o Lines are used to determined location • Parallels o latitude, North/South o angular distance is a measurement § example: Jacksonville, Alabama is 33* N • Longitude o the angle measured along the equator, between the reference meridian and the point of intersection. § Example: Jacksonville, Alabama is 85* W • 1 degree à 60 minutes à 3600 seconds o Jacksonville, Alabama: 33* 49’ 30’’ N, 85* 45’ 47’’ W • Decimal degrees o Degrees + (minutes/60) + (seconds/3600) o Example (Jacksonville): 33 + (49/60) + (30/3600) = 33.825 o Positive = North/East o Negative = South/West • Prime Meridian o Many countries use their capitals o International Meridian Conference 1884 selected Greenwich, England Earth as an Oblate Ellipsoid • 1660’s Sir Isaac Newton’s Gravity theory proves the Earth is not a sphere o mostly effects longitude o effects distance o Poles have a larger radius of curvature • Geodetic Latitude o The idea that the Earth is an ellipsoid and not a sphere • Determining Geodetic Latitude o Sextant - based off horizon o Stars; Polaris - North Star, Northern Hemisphere o Crux; Australis - Southern Cross, Southern Hemisphere • Determining Geodetic Longitude o Chronometer – taking Greenwich time then adding local time Properties of a Graticule • Small scale maps o Authalic Sphere: using a sphere in place of an ellipsoid o Spacing of parrells • Statute Mile o 69.09 per degree o equal 1.609 kilometer o land distance in the US • Kilometer o 111.2 per degree o closely tied to meridians o meter was one ten-millionth of distance along meridian • Nautical Mile o 60.04 per degree o equals 1.852 kilometers o equals 1.15 statute mile o one minute of Lat N/S along meridian • Covering Meridians o (69.09/mile) x (cos(lat)) § example Jacksonville : 33* N § (69.09) x (cos(33)) § (69.09) x (0.8387) § 57.95 miles
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