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by: mtraub


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These notes cover class materials from 9/2-9/9
Principles of Biology with Laboratory
Dr. Patricia Walsh
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by mtraub on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BISC104 at University of Delaware taught by Dr. Patricia Walsh in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
Chapter 1 Process of Science Biology: the study of life - How do we learn about biology • Observing • Ask questions • Proposing ideas/Come up with a hypothesis • Testing Discarding/modifying those ideas that fail • - Discovery Science • aka descriptive science • based on gathering observations and measurements • not testing a hypothesis with an experiment, but collection of data - Experimentation • attempts to explain observations (perhaps from discovery science) • based on the scientific method - making observations - asking questions - proposing ideas/hypothesis - test the idea/hypothesis - analyze results - discarding or modifying ideas What is a hypothesis? - Proposed explanation testable • • falsifiable - Where do hypotheses come from? 9/7 Developing a Hypothesis - Observation: In the 1990s, US women lived 6.7 years longer than men, and women in the UK and France lived 5.3 years and 7.8 years longer, respectively, than the men in those countries - Question: why is life expectancy longer for women than for men? - Hypothesis? Hypothesis or theory - What is the Difference? Is there a difference? • Hypothesis - narrow - there is a possible explanation • Theory - broad - well-supported - generally believed to be true - multiple sources have led to support How Science is Done - The story of Barry Marshall… • What causes ulcers? - Helicobacter pylori (an acid resistant bacteria) • Observations: - found bacteria in ulcers - hypothesis: ulcers are caused by a bacterial infection How it was tested • - ingested the bacteria - started getting sick - others tested the theory and eventually found support - Developing a Hypothesis • observe —> question—> possible explanation • testing - general—> specific - predictions: If, then The Process of Science - prediction - test - collect data Why is it impossible to say that the hypothesis that vitamin C prevents colds is true? A. Lab experiments are not practical B. Alternative hypotheses might be possible C. Experiments with humans are unethical D. Vitamin C is cannot be obtained naturally Which of the following is a scientific hypothesis: Jazz is better music than rap A. B. Garden fairies make tomatoes grow better C. Hunting species to extinction is wrong D. Increasing the amount of protein in a cow’s diet increases her milk yield Hypothesis Testing - Discovery Science • Observations - Experimentation • Data • Variable - Independent - Dependent • Control 9/9 In an experiment, Dr. Smith feeds different amounts of protein to day cows and measures the differences in their milk yields. What is the dependent variable? A. Time of milking B. milk yield C. amount of protein (independent variable) D. placebo E. age of cows Designing a controlled experiment • What are the variables? • What is control? Subject Pool • - random assignment - identical treatments except for… • placebo Echinacea Tea treatment Subject pool: female employees of nursing home who go to clinic because of cold - First 25 visitors—> control group - Next 25 visitors—> experimental group - Considered non-random - Experimental group recovers in fewer days Hypothesis: • Echinacea tea can treat cold symptoms Independent Variable: • Tea Dependent Variable: • Cold symptoms Designing a Controlled Experiment • Avoid Bias - Blind experiment the subject is unaware of placebo • - Double blind experiment • the subject and the experimenter are both unaware Other Options - When humans are not an option - pluses and minuses - Examine correlation between variables Example: Stress and the common cold - Using correlation to test hypotheses • Question: does stress make us more susceptible to the common cold • Hypothesis: Stress makes us more susceptible to a cold. • Test: measured stress of subjects, administered nasal drops of the cold virus • Results: as the level of stress increases, the number of colds increase - Possible alternative hypothesis • could be a job related reason for being more susceptible to colds could be a lack of sleep on top of stress • • diet could be a factor


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