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Diplomatic history

by: Hewan Ft

Diplomatic history Hist 330

Hewan Ft

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About this Document

Week two notes regarding American foreign policy.
Diplomatic History
S. Mooney
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hewan Ft on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 330 at James Madison University taught by S. Mooney in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Diplomatic History in History at James Madison University.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
History 330- Week 2- class 1 Chapt 2-3 Key terms John Q. Adams Northwest territory Louisiana purchase Secretary of state French Revolution Impressment Jay’s treaty Pinckney treaty XYZ Washington’s farewell address Undeclared war with France Alien and sedition acts Logan act Second war for independence Non-importation acts Monroe doctrine Rush-bagot pact of 1817 Transcontinental treaty “Era of good feelings” 1789 the states - US had no army - No navy - No qualified diplomats to fill foreign posts- the USA had to hire people from other nations to fill these post to represents US national interests. Like the French and British - No experience - No money - No policy Beginning of diplomacy as a nation 1 sec of state = Jefferson immigration westward pushes native Americans out of northwest territories (most serious threat) American exports are high in demand from Europe. Merchants are becoming the new Dutch- Americans thought they had more leverage than they actually did Competition between England and France forces many American merchants to chose sides Political power is being centralized by the new federal government- More Americans in Louisiana and Spanish Florida there for had a comparative advantage in terms of people. Very prosperous, quickening pace of westward expansion Who to choose? American leaders began to pick sides British vs French Washington, Hamilton, and Adams- a nation built of trade, merchants and good trading relations with England (pragmatic approach) Jefferson and madison- Wanted a farmers community and support for France (idealism) How do they deal with British if they have boats on American ports? What favoritism should be granted to the French for their help during the war for independence? War of 1812 was the most unpopular war until Vietnam Washington calls for neutrality; Hamilton’s arguments in favor of British trade win the day Washington claims important power for the president over congress (madison disagrees) John Jay’s new mission - John J. was selected for a mission to England to avert war, but secure American interests in 1793 - He was told not to violate the 1778 treaty with France, while still securing trading rights - Jay’s treaty was received harshly- it established the right that the (exec) president is the lead negotiator and the senate (2/3 vote) is who ratifies the treaties made (not the house of reps) - Neutral right are conceded fro other agreement - 20-10 US senate- jay condemned Agreement- Northern states get the right to fish in new England, and the most favored shipping status Southern states get secure borders Western states get access to new Orleans What they get is securing of the republic! The USA was negotiating this from a position of weakness and the British did not have to give them as much as they did. The John Adams years:- - the XYZ ( where 3 diplomats in Paris are extorted to even have a seat at the negotiations) Affair, French rebuff American diplomacy, offer bribes for continued negotiation. - French relations deteriorate, eventually ending the only alliance with a European power until the 20 century - Adams believes the English poses the most danger to the united states - Alien and sedition acts are passed with the purpose of targeting Jeffersonian republic-designed to attack republicans - Logan tax is passed- where a private American citizen cannot make foreign policy deals. This centralized their governing. (Jessie Jackson did this a lot) - There was a lot of disagreements and so not much changed and so not much happened Republicans (Jeffersonian) Federalist - Do a good job of securing peace and allow the republic to mature into a stable nation - It secured peace with both British and French - Established principles of freedom of action to the united states in regards to foreign policy - Public opinion would also need to be considered - Successful in securing peace, economic prosperity and freedom of action - Skill or luck die to extraordinary circumstances? o Luck- because Jay and Adams were not great negotiators, external forces (example France) Jefferson becomes president Louisiana purchase -Jefferson inheritance a landscape where the British do as they choose and the French seizing ships - He interpret the constitution in s broad view - Federalist in New England opposed expansion because it leads to more slavery His goal was to acquire New Orleans -The result would double the US territory -He buys it from Napoleon and buys the permission to go to explore but not own it unless they establish a presence. -Settlers move into Louisiana changing the population proportion on the ground - Jefferson moves natives into Mississippi region - He prepared to assault New Orleans with a military force if necessary - Napoleon decided to sell it because he knew he had a situation in Haiti (slave population in Haiti revolt and win) and that Jefferson was going to conquer it anyways. - Southern slave owners wanted to move west so that the high population of slaves in one area wont lead to another Haitian revolution Jefferson’s diplomatic pillars:- - Freedom of action - Centralization of power - Selective force - expansionism Understanding Jefferson - Republican ideas - Dislikes and distrust of the British and their policies - Agrarian republic at the odds with the vision of the coastal merchant nation - Hubris after success with napoleon - A great example of overreaching and overplaying ones hand with the British - He was too over confident. The nation for the first 30 years were not sure if they were going to stay together or not. Class 2- Jeffersonian policy - Military action in the Mediterranean influences national mood, and provides a uniting psychological boost to morale - Adjustment to policy from tribute to treaty. Jefferson was not comfortable with the federalist policy of payment and accommodation - Forming a nation requires more than just saying you are one people…how does a nation from an lasting national identity that creates solidarity o From independence to 1820’s USA did not any American identity but several event help them get there. (Adams would paying for hostages where as Jefferson got militia to go get the hostages) War of 1812 - 1807 England and France ear continues - England begins to pressure American shipping - England begins seizing Americans shops/sailors, impressment dealt with a manpower shortage- to help cut off the French supply and starve them out in Europe. - Anti-British sentiment rose, especially in the south west - Controlling of American trade, combination with a belief that Canada could be annexed leads to war. Indian relations and British involvement also contribute - Henry clay and john C Calhoun led faction promoting war - James Monroe, secretary of state These are the second generation of American leaders and they are more careless with their decision starting with the war of 1812. The British had the upper hand at first 1812- HOW NOT TO WIN A WAR - British blockage- British embargo to the USA - Public disinterested or opposed to the conflict. New England threatens secession (Hartford convention) southerners wanted to go to war but they were also the most removed from the war. - Military defeats make for a weak diplomatic hand in Ghent, 1814.- British said they wanted main, and control of the Mississippi river. - Late success in the great lakes, lake Champlain, Baltimore along with international events and the threat of continued war in Europe alters British demands. - External events created needed peace in North America End game - The future of north Americans Indians in the northwest territory is determined - Canada forms a national identity as a reaction to invasion - Herring argues than Indian affairs moves from the realm of foreign policy to domestic policy - “Status quo antebellum”- no immediate goals realized but emerges victorious over napoleon and the British - a period of free security t begin because the British allow it and because they benefit from it as well. Discussion:- How does the writing of John Winthrop influence foreign policy - States that America should be the example for others and be the state to look up to in regards to Self government - “City upon a hill”- which is close to god, he contributed the idea that Americans are favored by god. Later developing the idea of manifest destiny and politicians today still do the same thing. - It was also a cautionary piece because the people are watching America - American exceptionalism How does the writing of Thomas Paine influence foreign policy? - Claimed that the Europeans needed the Americans more - The relations with the Europeans lead them towards a downward spiral - He though it was ridiculous that a continent should be governed by an island How does the writing of James Madison influence foreign policy - Europe depends on US - They can use their commerce as leverage- as was American’s bargaining chip - He dislikes Jay’s treaty because he thought it was too pro Britain Economic and territorial expansion - Free security allows for vast and quick expansion - Slavery/ expansion becomes linked, sowing seed of later conflict - Economic expansion (market revolution- the rise of a manufacturing economy. These are domestic changes that influence our image and actions abroad. Americans population doubling around bodies of water and rivers, therefore as the population changes the policies started to change as well. John Q. Adam- most important Sec. Of State He becomes president and then becomes a member of the house Spent 17 years over seas and know how to manipulate the system to benefit America - he believed the united states was destined to the rule the continent of north America- implements polices to achieve expansion across the continent Order of Succession President/Secretary of state Madison/Monroe Monroe/JQ Adams Adams/ Henry clay Early polices Monroe and Adams focused on opening trade breaking economic barriers but limited success- British/American direct trade increased which was successful The addition of Florida- Thank you Adams - Andrew Jackson invasion of Florida creates a diplomatic crisis that Monroe and Adams take advantage of - Adams… Florida was lawless and Jackson’s invasion was necessary to protect the united states- because the Spanish left Florida to govern itself and it became a hub for pirates - Morality, destiny and mission - Securing the east while laying claim to the northwest - Ensuring Indian removal and the expansion of slavery.


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