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Week 3 Class Notes

by: Kelli Notetaker

Week 3 Class Notes XANTHRO 2AC

Kelli Notetaker

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The black writing is the outline the professor gives. The red writing is the in-class notes.
Introduction to Archaeology
Kent G Lightfoot
Class Notes
Intro to Archaeology
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelli Notetaker on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to XANTHRO 2AC at University of California Berkeley taught by Kent G Lightfoot in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
Anthro 2AC 9/7/2016 Read:  Altshchul and Patterson 2010, Little and Zimmerman 2010 II. WHY STUDY ARCHAEOLOGY? 4. Stewardship of the Past  Preserve, Protect, Interpret Cultural Heritage; Cultural Heritage of Places can be a variety of things; might be archaeological sites,  buildings, sacred a place of tribes, etc. provides a better understanding of where we came from.  Allows us to learn from past people (successes and failures).  A. Cultural Resource Management (CRM)­ provides the protection of these places Federal and State Laws­ state laws by 1960s.. A cultural heritage industry called CRM.  Defines CRM as to comply of legal statutes, mandates, and regulations affecting historical  properties of their values.  Issue of Looting (vandalism of archaeological sites); Mitigate Development on Sites;  many artifacts have a very high value. Early laws were really focused on looting. From the  1960s­1970s laws passed to mitigate the destruction by development. Series of federal laws were passed to protect sits on state lands, federal lands, and tribal  Mandate Programs for Managing Cultural Resources; Create State Historic Preservation  Offices (SHPO) mandated to protect the sites; National Register of Historic Places where  sites of significance are nominated to the national register. Effort by Congress to preserve these historical resources; CRM involved in survey and evaluation of archaeological  remains that may be impacted­CRM is polluters pay (disturb archaeological places = they have to pay for it) by development; (direct consequence of legislation and environmental laws)  Archaeologists survey areas and report archaeological sites, decide what’s important, and decide how to protect them. Mitigation­ excavation the site before it is destroyed. CRM  has radically changed archaeology.  B. Public Outreach­ educational programs presented to the public about archaeology and talking  about cultural heritage of places. Must be relevant to the broader public. Need to do Archaeology in the Public Interest;  Public Pays for Archaeology (Polluters Pay); disturb site = you pay. Developers pass on  the cost to consumers. It is then the public paying for the archaeology.  Educate Public about Rich Cultural Heritage of Places; Do You See Evidence of Public  Outreach? ­ Needs to happen throughout the ages. It is very limited. In the 70s, there was very  little of public outreach. But today it is an important component. Governments mandate this  public outreach. Critical issue is that thousands of dollars spent on CRM but what is it actually  doing? Ethical issues involved when paying extra to get the okay.  C. Making Archaeology Relevant to Modern World Action Archaeology(archaeologist engage in problems around the world); Activist Archaeology(contempory and political problems) ; Archaeology of 10 Minutes Ago (the right now) ­ we need to make the field more  relevant.  Examples: a) Louisville Litter Project­ used for the problem of litter. Most recent development of  garbage.  b) Material Culture of Homelessness­ study material remains of material remains and  camps. Short­term sites might be used and camp use for longer sites. They find lots of unused  cans and shampoo bottles.  c) Study of Genocide, Atrocities –use bioarchaelogical methods and excavate people in  world in legal cases. The twin tower used bioarchaelogical methods to uncover human remains.  The United Nations is trying to put people behind bars for genocides. Most cases have to deal  with legal issues.  D.  Jobs in Archaeology­provides a recent overview over these jobs CRM Created Jobs in Archaeology; ­ created jobs throughout the topics (biological,  historical, or cultural). Shortage of well­trained archaeology.  Considerable funding for CRM Research; Thousands of Archaeologists Involved; Need MA or PhD degree have two year post graduate programs. Real Shortage California Archaeology Jobs: a) Agency Archaeologists­ government agencies that hire to oversee the management,  protection, and preservation of these sites on their lands.  b) Consulting Archaeologists­ work for private environmental consulting firms.  c) Academic Archaeologists­ one per university d) Museum Archaeologists/Related Specialists­ public outreach.  E. Working with Local Publics Getting Local Communities Involved in Arch; What are Stakeholders? Collaborative Archaeology Brief History of Icy Relationship Between Archaeologists and Tribes Anthro 2AC 9/9/2016 Read:  Fagan 1994(Ozette site); Lightfoot 2005 II. WHY STUDY ARCHAEOLOGY? 4. Stewardship of the Past  E. Working with Local Publics­ diversity of publics. i.e public outreach Getting Local Communities Involved in Arch; What are Stakeholders? people with close connections to the archeological record of a  local place. Often descendent communities.  Collaborative Archaeology – working with various stakeholders. We don’t do  archaeology ourselves. We work with different groups of people. It is very community driven.  The most popular group archaeologist work with in California is the Indians.  Brief History of Icy Relationship­ History of tension between Native Americans and  archaeologists.  Between Archaeologists and Tribes­ now we don’t do any work without the Natives. In  the 70s, they didn’t do that at all. The field has changed dramatically.  5. Summarize: Reasons for Doing Archaeology 1. Study of ancient history 2.Recent issues of the written record 3. Colonialism 4. Contemporary archaeology­ garbage, homeless  Diachronic perspective Public Outreach Making Archaeology relevant III.CHALLENGES STUDYING ARCH. MATERIAL  1.  Differential Preservation of Material Remains Preservation varies dramatically; Arch. Record is Patchy; Preservation Due to 4 Factors: A.  Type of Material (Organic least durable, hydrocarbons made out of something that was  alive ex) bone, teeth are one of the most easy preserved /Inorganic fairly common because they  are more durable) hardness, density of material, chemical composition; B.  Context of Deposition (Surface, A Horizon, deeply buried)­ where are these materials  deposited and found. On the surface, they don’t preserve well. First 10­13 cm (top soil) contain  different bacteria, animals, and plants. Materials will then decompose. Deeply buried are the best because it prevents from decomposition.  C.   Post­Depositional Context  Materials Left Buried? Percolation of Ground Water; Bioturbation (turn things up. Bad  for archaeology i.e goolfers) ; Looting – Are they left undisturbed? D.   Local Environmental Conditions: Air Temperature; Soil Temperature, Moisture,  Chemistry; pH – acid (1­6) , neutral (7) or basic (8­14)­ may enhance some materials  Worst Conditions– the tropics, acidic soils, Alternating hot/cold, wet/dry – different  regions of the world has different levels of preservation. Caves and rock shelters remain  much more stable.  E.  Best Contexts for Preservation     i.  Stable Anaerobic Conditions (Oxygen Reduced) does not support many microbes and  bacteria Water­logged Anaerobic Context:  Ozette Site, Makah Indians, R. Daugherty, 500BP, Mud Slide Covered Village; Fagan  1994; the Makah people. Early collaboration project of working with a tribe.  Ozette site was about 500 years ago and had a mudslide. The wet mud helped  preserve the materials and bypassed the destructive conditions in the open air.  Created the earliest museum and engaged the public. Unearthed this 500­year­old  plank house. Storage boxes that contained dry food, artwork, blankets, wooden  looms, baskets, mats, wooden bowls etc. ECOFACTS. There is proof that these  people were big whale hunters.  Peat Bogs (Irish Bog, Windeby Bodies, Windover) Underwater Sites Anaerobic (cold  water, buried – examples: Mary Rose, La Belle) – swamps and wetlands do not  completely decompose. Peat dries out and burns very well. Used to make whiskey.  Windover Site 7410 BP­ organic material. Open­air site material (typically decomposes)     ii. Freezing Conditions (Ice Man from Italian Alps)  iii.  Arid Conditions – rockshelters, caves, Mesa Verde  Gila Cliff Dwellings


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