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deviance week 3

by: Lindsey Notetaker

deviance week 3 SOCL 3501

Lindsey Notetaker
GPA 3.5

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these notes cover social control theories and learning theories and will be on test1
Sociology of Deviance
G. Stevenson
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsey Notetaker on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCL 3501 at Louisiana State University taught by G. Stevenson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Sociology of Deviance in Sociology at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 09/09/16
o Agnew General Strain Theory  Sources of strain:  Inability to achieve positively held goals  Not passing a class, not getting a driver’s license  Presence of negative stimuli  Child abuse, being bullied, conflict with parents  Removal or threat of removal of positive stimuli  Break up, moving to a new city  Negative affective states  Negative feelings  The way we cope with stress and negative feelings is influenced by our position in the social structure; gender, age, race, etc. (sociological part of theory)  Example: men and women deal with negative affective states. Men externalize, women are more likely to internalize  Deviance  Not limited to one kind of crime or deviance. Not limited to one group of people.  Learning theories o Differential association theory – Sutherland  People have to learn how to be criminal/ deviant, just like we have to learn how to read, ride a bike, etc.  We have to learn the how to’s and the motivations behind the deviance  We learn by interacting through our significant others. We are constantly receiving messages that are favorable or unfavorable to crime and deviance.  We are only going to become deviant when we have an excess of definitions favorable to crime and deviance  It’s what you say, more than what you do. It is about the quality and quantity of the messages you receive  Messages coming from parents, siblings, etc. make them stronger than others. The younger you are when you start to hear it makes the message stronger o Differential Reinforcement- Burgess and Akers  Agrees with Sutherland but…  Why do we continue some things and stop others?  According to Burgess and Akers, it has to do with reinforcement  Things that are positively reinforced, it will continue. If it is negatively reinforced, it will stop. The reinforcement doesn’t necessarily have to come from the outside, it could be internal. o Differential identification- Glaser  Agrees with Sutherland but…  If we strongly identify with the sender of the message, then that message is going to be a lot more important to us. Also if we strongly identify with the message, it is going to be a lot more important to us  Social control theories o Social control/ social bond- Hirschi o Why do people conform?  Strong bonds increase stakes in conformity; you have more to lose by being deviant o Sees people as hedonistic people are bad and have to learn to be good  To him, it is all about social bond. This is the bond between the individual and society.  4 ways individuals are bonded with society.  Attachment: the emotional part. When people are strongly attached to conventional people and institutions, they are less likely to be deviant o Example: school, churches.  Involvement: time and energy allocation the more time and energy you spend going to work, maintaining personal relationships, cleaning the house, etc. the less time and energy you have to for unconventional activities (deviance).  Commitment: how committed you are to a conventional way of life. This comes down to reputation. Reputations are extremely important, especially if you want to get a conventional job. Being employed matters to us, if someone who has a job is arrested, chances are they won’t do it again. if you are unemployed, being arrested doesn’t really have an affect  Belief: if you believe in the rules, you are more likely to follow them.  All 4 parts work together to strengthen the relationship between the individual and a conventional society. o Deterrence theory  Basic principle of deterrence people are rational decision makers, meaning, we will weigh the pros and cons before making a decision.  This isn’t necessarily true. Some people are rational decision makers some of the time. Drugs, alcohol, mental illness, brain damage, can affect our rationality. Brain isn’t fully developed until early 20’s, so teenagers/kids cannot make rational decisions.  We use the threat or actual application of punishment to deter people.  General deterrence: the threat of punishment that is for the general population  Specific deterrence: this is about lowering recidivism (reoffending). The use of punishment to keep people from doing it again.  In order for punishment to be an effective deterrent, it needs to be:  Swift o The smaller the time period is between doing something wrong and when you get punished for it, the more affective it is.  Certain o High certainty of being caught, and a high certainty of being punished  We can increase the certainty of being caught by surveillance. Police presence deters property crime, but not really violent crime. People who commit violent crime are not rational decision makers, they don’t care if the police are close by.  Severe o Punishment needs to be severe. Punishment needs to fit the crime, if it is too lenient, it won’t deter. If it is too severe, it won’t deter.


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