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Chapter 1: Matter, Measurement and Problem Solvinb

by: Mia Hopkins

Chapter 1: Matter, Measurement and Problem Solvinb Chemistry 1211

Marketplace > Armstrong Atlantic State University > Chemistry > Chemistry 1211 > Chapter 1 Matter Measurement and Problem Solvinb
Mia Hopkins
GPA 3.83

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These notes go over chapter one of Principles of Chemistry: a molecular approach. Some topics include dimensional analysis, significant figures, SI units, physical and chemical properties, and more.
Principles of Chemistry
Dr. Natalie Romano
Class Notes
General Chemistry
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mia Hopkins on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chemistry 1211 at Armstrong Atlantic State University taught by Dr. Natalie Romano in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Principles of Chemistry in Chemistry at Armstrong Atlantic State University.

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Date Created: 09/09/16
Principles of Chemistry: A molecular approach Chapter 1  Physical properties of matter are determined by chemical and physical properties of atoms and molecules  Atoms o Subatomic microscopic particles of matter o Building blocks of elements and molecules  Molecules o Two or more atoms  CO (carbon monoxide)  One carbon one oxygen  Unique size and shape  Binds to hemoglobin  Denys ability for O2 to bind to hemoglobin  People can sometimes turn pink when this happens  Scientific method o Science is empirical o Based on observation and experimentation o Decision making and problem solving  Organized plan  Fluid  Scientific method o Terminologies  Facts are always true-- phenomenon that everyone can agree on  Scientific laws -- example gravity -- hypothesis or statement about relationships of natural quantities that has been tested and not contradicted  Usually math equations  Aka principles  Hypothesis- has to be testable and falsifiable  Scientific  Capable of being wrong  Data never proves a hypothesis only supports it  Can not be proven only supported anyway  Theory  Unifying explanation of scientific phenomena  Synthesis of large body of information and encompasses well tested hypothesis about certain aspects  A good theory is falsifiable Classification of matter  Matter o Has mass and occupies space o Atoms and molecules in motion  3 phasesO o Solid i. Rigid ii. Fixed volume iii. Fixed shape o Liquid i. Fixed volume ii. No fixed shape iii. Shape is defined by the container o Gas i. Unrestricted movement ii. Volume defined by the container iii. Expands to fill its container iv. Theoretical understanding  Atoms o Smallest unit of an element o Subatomic particles i. Protons, neutrons, electrons ii. Neutral atoms -- same number of p+ and e-  Elements  Composed of atoms with the same number of protons  Example: C (Carbon) = 6 protons and 6 Neutrons o  Carbon atoms with a different number of N are considered isotopes  Molecules and compounds  Molecules-- smallest unit of a compound that retains the characteristics of that compound  Molecules are compounds that are a combination of two or more elements  Character of each element is lost when forming a compound  Composition of molecules is given by a molecular formula i. Ex: H2O Physical and Chemical Changes  Physical o Phase change o Chemical composition remains the same o Properties: density, color intensity, particle size, melting/ freezing point, boiling point, texture, etc. o Density  Mass/volume  Intensive  Does not depend on the amount of substance you have  physical proportions of mass and volume are extensive-- how much of a substance you have matters  Chemical properties o Creating a new compound o Transforms one or more molecule or atom o Example a nail rusting o Flammability, reactivity, combustion, toxicity, oxidation, etc.  E! o Capacity to do work o Neither created nor destroyed o Kinetic or potential 2  Kinetic - movement ; KE = 1/2 MV  Potential- Stored E! ; PE = mhg o Can be converted from KE to PE or vice versa  Mechanical to chemical o When matter undergoes a chemical or physical change, the amount of E! changes as well  Gaining or releasing E!  Work o Action or force applied across a distance  Force is a push or pull  E! of the universe is conserved o First law of thermodynamics Scientific Measurements units, precision, accuracy  2 parts o Scalar or unit  Ex: 5.9m or 3.7 kg (kg and m are the units or scalars) o Numerical value  Ex: 25.0 cm or 1.00 ft (1.00 and 25.0 are the numerical units)  Precision instrument  Type of measurement  Quantitative  Qualitative SI units  Refer to list in notebook  Kelvin-- absolute 0 -- all movement ceases  0k = -273 degrees C = -459 degrees F (absolute zero)  373 K = 100 degrees C = 212 degrees F (Boiling) 273 K = 0.00 degrees C = 32 degrees F (freezing) Significant Figure primer  All non zeros are significant  Zeros b/w non zeros are sig  Placer holder (leading zeros) o Zeros to the left of the non zero o Not sig  Zeros to the right or after non zeros are not  Typically scientific notation is reserved for larger numbers or smaller numbers  3010 = 3.01 * 10^3  0.0310 = 3.10 * 10^-2  Reporting sig figs in an answer is dependent on precision of the measured values given in the problem or determined by the precision of the glassware or lab equipment  Conversions are exact values  RULES o Multiplication and division  Least precise measured value determines the number of significant figures within the reported answers o Addition and subtraction  Value with the smallest decimal measurement determines the amount of sig figs Reliability and measurement  Precision- agreement / closeness of repeatable values o You can be precise but not accurate  Accuracy - agreement / closeness of measurement of values to actual known value o You can be accurate but not precise  Uncertainty measurements or confidence factor o Degree if measurements or values differs o Reports as +/- and usually determined by using scientific method  Ex: 23.45 +/- 0.05 Dimensional Analysis  Helps in converting one unit to another  Relationships between 2 units  Equivalence problems  Sort information -- devise a strategy-- solve-- check answer


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