Social Psychology Lecture notes week 4
Social Psychology Lecture notes week 4 Psyc 3580
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ivy Notetaker on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 3580 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Gitter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Social Psychology Dr. Gitter 9/6/16 (Continued from “The fallacy of introspection”) Selective social comparison o I’m pretty good at sports… but who am I comparing myself to? Not Cam Newton or Bo Jackson… probably a nerd that’s not good at sports. Consistency motive o Confirmation bias seek out situations that confirm the self; avoid disconfirming situations o Domains become important. Favor situations that confirm positive selfviews. I’m a good athlete play a lot of sports. Avoid situations that disconfirm positive selfviews. So, what’s the result? Outcome of all this selfenhancement? 3 symptoms of selfenhancement gone haywire: o positive illusions the 3 characteristics of selfenhancement that normal people use to make them feel good about themselves 1. Betterthanaverage People rank themselves high on their skills compared to others most thought they were in the top 10% Everyone’s better than the “average person”. Statistically impossible! 2. Illusion of control people think they have more control than they actually do Ex. craps game of chance; people did things (rolling dice harder or softer) to try to increase chances; when they actually have no control over their chance of winning at all Ex. motorcycles not wearing helmets because they’re “good drivers” don’t take into account other drivers Ex. risktaking in general people think they have more control over their situations than they actually do 3. Unrealistic optimism idea that good things will happen to you Ex. marriage survey o 2 questions: What percent of marriages end in divorce? 50% What is the probability that you will get a divorce? Most said 0% o Problem with unrealistic optimism? Health prevention concerns going to the doc, taking vitamins, not smoking or tanning; Cancer won’t happen to me. **Everyone (including healthy people) sees the world through a biased lens. SelfEsteem 3 commonly accepted classifications: 1. Global 2. Domain specific 3. State Measuring SelfEsteem (SE) Explicit SE asking people how they feel about themselves o Rosenburg SelfEsteem scalemost widely used scale in social psychology 10 questions with answers ranked 15 (greatly disagree to greatly agree) Implicit SE unconscious gravitation toward people, places, and things that resemble or have anything to do with the self o Where would you most likely find someone named George? Georgia Phyllis? Philadelphia o What profession would Dennis have? Dentist o Implicit SE= unconscious SE Name letter preferences monogramming, car tags with names, initials on car “Smelfesteem” people like their smell better than other’s Characteristics Associated with SelfEsteem: Selfview o (on a 5 point scale) High selfesteem (HSE) very positive; between 4 and 5 Low selfesteem (LSE) positive, but less so; between 2.5 and 4 Selfcertainty o HSE know who they are; numbers on scale are consistently high o LSE selfconcept confusion; results on scale vary per day; changes/fluctuations but usually more realistic Response to evaluation: o Positive feedback everyone likes it! o Negative feedback HSE bounce back quickly LSE take it personally, generalize it to other aspects of themselves, ruins their day Behavior patterns o LSE selfprotective Avoid failure talk about drawbacks of not doing it Use caution o HSE selfenhancing Seek successtalk about the positives of doing it Takes risks **Most people are between HSE and LSE or are a combination of them both. SelfEsteem Myths or Questions: Gender differences not as big of a difference as people think; result of experiences Kids=love themselves, age 13=selfesteem drops more drop in women than in men but a small difference; about the same level for adults Males do outscore females. o Greatest difference in adolescents. o SMALL difference. o Mostly because men like themselves so much. o Comes as experiences: body images, bullying Selfesteem and aggression o Bullies don’t necessarily have LSE o Unreasonably HSEaggression (video on Canvas) o Narcissism Threatened egotism almost addicted to how much you love yourself; when someone insults you, it’s a threat to egomust prove them wrongaggression o Unreasonably LSE no aggression LSE protective of what they have; not going to fight Narcissists: o Most really love themselves, some hate themselves deep down (research still being done on this) o Poor relationship partners friends or significant others are only worth what they can give you. They are fun at first…then dump you quickly. Cheat on romantic partners Don’t care if you like them…just want you to admire them. o Tend to be very successful and likeable. o Very aggressivephysically and sexually o Very prejudice believe that their groups are the best and others are bad o Very persistent but also stubborn. Ex. Billy Mitchell won Pacman and ate every ghost, fruit, etc.; holds world record for many arcade games (video on canvas) o Associated with being a psychopath. Narcissistic Personality Disorder won’t go to treatment or will go for affirmation that others are wrong and there’s nothing wrong with them; don’t usually grow out of it; debate on if its nature or nurture that causes it 9/8/16 What is selfesteem good for? How about feeling positive about yourself? People with high SE rate themselves as more attractive, smarter, and more likable. o However, objective results do NOT confirm this! So, what is SE good for? Is it a proxy for your success? “topdown” vs. “bottomup” views of SE o Bottomup: positive attributes selfesteem o Topdown: selfesteempositive attributes (or just a perception of positive attributes) Studies done when school children are praised in class (no matter how they perform). o Didn’t work! The wrong type of praise can be counterproductive. Entity theorists believe you have natural abilities and that cannot change Incremental theorists believe you can improve whatever skills you have with practice or effort Now praise for effort, not talent makes students want to work harder Brown and Dutton (1994) o Fake Personality Trait Integrative Ability (IA) People thought they were being asked questions about their personality. Were asked questions like “What links these 3 words together: car, swimming, and cue?” (pool) Were asked if they think they had “the trait” or not… people of HSE 3x more likely to say they did, even though they didn’t do any better at the task than the others. What it’s good for: Does encourage people to take risks with possible positive benefits. o Relationships and making new friends is a good sign of selfesteem. Resource stock: greater resiliency to negative feedback o HSE means you take a hit and bounce back. o Tendency for HSE to abstract failure to make themselves feel better. Need to Belong: Baumeister and Leary (1995) Fundamental human motivation o Just like eating, sleeping and breathing we need social relationships. o Lack of social relationships are related to: Psychological problems Health problems Sociometer theory: Leary and Baumeister (2000) SE as a gas gauge for social acceptance. o SE fluctuates with gains and losses in relationships. o Especially sensitive to losses. Gas gauge can be wrongly calibrated. o Narcissists set too high. (always on full) o Depressed set too low. o Could actually be lonely or could only perceive to be lonely. Fighting Temptation Automatic vs. Controlled o Automatic reading, saying alphabet, walking o Controlled saying alphabet backwards Selfregulation self’s capability to monitor and alter responses o Overriding automatic impulses in favor of controlled thoughtful behavior Instant vs. delayed gratification o Doing something we want could step on others’ toes ruining relationships (that are important for survival) “YOLO” vs. “Controlo” o Important function in development of culture. o Do we have freewill? Four main categories of selfregulation: 1. Thought control Auto: let your mind wander Cont: focus and study for exam 2. Affect regulation Auto: I’ll cry if I want to Cont: Keep emotions inside We don’t laugh at funerals. 3. Impulse control Auto: I want that cake! Cont: I need to stick to my diet. 4. Performance control persistence Auto: I should give up. Cont: I think I can, I think I can… Only one of the 4 that’s to continue doing something instead of stopping something. Delay of Gratification (Mischel and colleagues) Tempt people measure response Used 4 year old kids o Gave child a marshmallow and a choice: Eat immediately or don’t eat and they would get another marshmallow. Left alone in room for 20 minutes, watched through oneway window. o Followed kids into adulthood: Kids who were more patient (and didn’t eat marshmallow): o Were rated more competent by teacher and parents o Got better grades and SAT scores o Attained higher levels of education o And eventually earned more money Ex. being in class (or college) delayed gratification More selfcontrol= less likely to be aggressive or to abuse drugs and alcohol 3 ingredients of selfregulation 1. Standards guidelines of what we (or our society, parents, friends) set for ourselves. Ex. speed limits, no cussing, working hard in school, wearing pink on Wednesdays (haha) motivated by consequences (speeding tickets, getting mouth washed out with soap, bad grades) 2. Monitoring: selfawareness Attending to whether we’re meeting our standards or not Ex. I what I’m doing right now doing to help me reach my goals? o SelfDiscrepancy Theory (Higgins, 1986) Actual self How am I doing? Multiple selves Ideal Self wants, wishes, desires o Ex. fitness goals Ought self what’s appropriate o Ex. standards (explained above) Monitor, compare to actual self and look for discrepancies o Actual/Ideal discrepancies sadness, depression o Monitoring system is emotional responses o Actual/Ought discrepanciesworry, anxiety **Discrepant selfviews Emotional response Motivates selfchange Ex. Not living up to standardsfeeling sad/depressed/anxiousworks harder or changes to fulfill standards 3. Strength: mental resources The Limited Resource Model o Selfregulation is like a muscle: with use, it becomes fatigued. o Participants in “tastetesting” are seated at a table containing radishes and cookies. 1 group instructed to not eat cookies, eat all the radishes you want= they wndt the cookies, smell them, etc. 2 group instructed to not eat radishes, eat all the you want= it was easy for them to eat cookies and leave the radishes o Alternative predictions 1. Priming engaging in selfregulation primes the process and makes it more likely to occur SR exertion should increase subsequent SR 2. Skill model SR is a skill independent of resources SR exertion shouldn’t affect subsequent SR 3. Depletion SR draws on a limited resource common to all SR efforts SR exertion should decrease subsequent SR Dependent variables (DV) o DVs (independent studies) Persisting at impossible puzzle tracing exercise Restricting emotion to funny or sad video Drinking bad tasting beverage because it’s healthy o In all cases, those in the selfregulatory depleted condition fared worse: persisted less, showed more emotion, drank less Egodepletion is domain independent o Enacting selfregulation in one domain, temporarily depletes your ability to regulate in other domains Ability vs. Motivation o Baumeister suggests that selfregulatory depletion results from a decrease in the ability to sustain performance o Motivation is also important. Selfdetermination theory (Ryan and Deci) Selfefficacy beliefs (Bandura) When we lack the motivation or lack the expectation of success, self regulation “failures” are likely. Ways to regulate better: 1. Change situation to require less energy. a. Ex. If you’re trying to quit smoking, don’t go to a bar or have cigarettes at home. 2. Avoid the double whammy. a. Ex. Don’t try to cut out alcohol and cigarettes at the same time. 3. Avoid alcohol/drugs when trying to regulate. a. Impairs decision making 4. Strive for delayed gratification. a. Builds selfcontrol over time. b. Ex. display clothing that you’ll be able to wear when you lose weight 5. Make behavior automatic! a. If you do something enough, it becomes a habit and does not require as much self regulation. 6. Use cognitive strategies.
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