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BIOL 111, Week 3

by: Shelby Auge

BIOL 111, Week 3 BIOL 111G

Shelby Auge
GPA 3.837

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About this Document

Mendelian genetics, Punnett square, alleles, Gregor Mendel
Natural History of Life
Avis C. James
Class Notes
mendelian genetics, alleles, Biology, Gregor Mendel, Punnett Squares
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Auge on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 111G at New Mexico State University taught by Avis C. James in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Natural History of Life in Biology at New Mexico State University.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
Lecture 6 – Genetics: Mendel 1 Workshop prep: review genetic terms, bring book • Gregor Mendel – Mendelian genetics o Experiments on pea plants § Mathematically describing the rules of inheritance § Why peas? • Peas are easy to grow and have a short life cycle • True breeding strains were commercially available • True breeding lines: o Offspring look like parents • Control reproduction o Pea flowers are constructed in such a way that they typically self-fertilize o Remove anthers of a flower o Using a brush, pollen from one plant can be transferred to another – cross fertilization • Seven simple characters: o Character: a heritable feature that varies among individuals o Trait: a variant in a population o Phenotype: the expressed traits of an organism o 1. Seed shape § smooth § wrinkled o 2. Seed color § Yellow § Green o 3. Flower color § purple § white o 4. Pod shape § inflated § constricted o 5. Pod color § green § yellow o 6. Flower position § Axial – by the stem § Terminal – up at the top o 7. Stem length § tall § short • Mendel asked : what happens when you cross plants with different traits? o The Parental generation : P o First Filial generation : F1 o 2 Filial generation : F 2 o Tall plant x Short plant -> F1 all tall plants § Dominant trait § Recessive trait § F2, 787 tall, 277 short; 2.84:1 ratio § Same pattern for the other 6 traits o Review of Mendel’s experiments with the idea of genes and alleles in mind: § Alleles • alternative forms of a gene, and may produce different phenotypes § Trait = seed color • homozygous o both yellow seed color o both green seen color o both chromosomes have the same allele • heterozygous o different seed color o chromosomes have different alleles • dominant o yellow seeds, Y o YY, Yy • Recessive o Green seeds, y o yy • true breeding lines o homozygous o YY or yy • Punnett Square o A diagram used in the study of inheritance to show the results of random fertilization o Mendel’s results § Trait • Seeds o Smooth/wrinkle -> all smooth o Yellow/green-> all yellow • Pods o Green/yellow->all green o Stem/tip-> all tip § Chi square statistical test • Chi = sum [(observed-expected) /expected] • Look up chi table • The F 2generation phenotypes are in a 3/1 ration of dominant to recessive phenotypes


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