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BSC 108 Biology for Non-Majors Week 3 Notes

by: Jared Helton

BSC 108 Biology for Non-Majors Week 3 Notes BSC 108

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Biology > BSC 108 > BSC 108 Biology for Non Majors Week 3 Notes
Jared Helton
GPA 3.4

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About this Document

Notes for 8/29/16 through 9/2/16
Intro to Biology Non-Maj
Dr. Yates
Class Notes
Biology, BSC108, The University of Alabama
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jared Helton on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 108 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Yates in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biology Non-Maj in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 09/09/16
BSC 108 8/29/16 o High Fructose Corn Syrup  HFCS 55 (mostly used in soft drinks), approximately 55% fructose and 42% glucose  HFCS 42 (used in beverages, processed foods, cereals and baked goods), approximately 42% fructose and 53% glucose  HFCS 90, approximately 90% fructose and 10% glucose, is used in small quantities for specialty applications, but primarily is used to blend with HFCS 42 to make HFCS 55.  Triglycerides o Composed of two two types of molecules  Function of triglycerides o Energy storage  Higher amount of energy storage than carbohydrates  Insulation of warm-blooded animals  Cushion internal organs BSC 108 8/31/16  Fatty acids o Saturated  No double bonds; solid; animal o Unsaturated  Contains 1 or more double bonds; liquid; plant  Phospholipids o Similar to neutral fat o Contain glycerol, 2 fatty acids, and PO4 o Part of molecule associates with water, part does not. o Phospholipid bilayers form structure of most biological membranes  Steroids o Functions  Stabilize membranes- cholesterol  Chemical Messenger- sex hormones, (testosterone, estradiol) o Synthetic Anabolic steroids are controversial  They are variants of testosterone.  Used to build muscles quickly  Serious health risks  Proteins o Structural o Storage o Contractile o Transport o Enzymes  Amino Acids o All proteins are constructed from a common set of 20 kinds of amino acids o Each amino acid consists of a central carbon atom bonded to 4 covalent partners in which three of those attachment groups are common to all amino acids. BSC 108 9/2/16 Chapter 3 (cont.)  Enzymes o Catalytic protein  Speeds up biological reactions o Substrate specific o Affected by temperature and pH o Many enzymes require non-protein helpers called cofactors  Inorganic- zinc, iron, and copper  Organic (also called coenzymes)- vitamins  Nucleic Acid o Includes DNA and RNA o Genetic materials that organisms inherit from their parents.  A- Adenine  T- Thymine  G- Guanine  C- Cytosine  A only pairs with T  G only pairs with C  Hydrogen Bonds o RNA- Ribonucleic acid  Single stranded  RNA uses the sugar ribose and the base Uracil (U), instead of thymine (T). Chapter 4  Microscopes o Two factors that determine the quality of microscopy  Magnification is an increase in the specimen’s apparent size  Resolving power is the ability of an optical instrument to show two objects are separate o The accumulation of scientific evidence led to the cell theory  All living things are composed of cells  All cells come from other cells o The light Microscopes are used by many scientists  Light passes through the specimen  Lenses enlarge, or magnify the image o Two kinds of electron microscopes  Scanning electron microscopes examine cell surfaces.  Transmission electron microscopes are useful for internal details of cells.  Features common to all cells o All cells have a plasma membrane  Phospholipid bilayer- selective barrier o All cells have a cytosol, or cytoplasm  The area within the membrane not including organelles o All cells have at least one chromosome  Contains DNA o All cells have ribosomes  sites of protein synthesis  Structure and Function of the Nucleus o The nucleus is bordered by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope o Pores in the envelope allow materials to move between nucleus and the cytoplasm o The nucleus contains a nucleolus where ribosomes are made  Ribosomes o responsible for protein synthesis o Components are made in the nucleolus  Do their work in the cytosol  DNA  RNA  Protein o Suspended in the fluid of the cytoplasm or o Attached to the outside of an organelle called the endoplasmic reticulum


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