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Science of Human Nutrition-Week 2 Notes

by: Kathryn Notetaker

Science of Human Nutrition-Week 2 Notes NUTR 23511-009

Marketplace > Kent State University > Nutrition > NUTR 23511-009 > Science of Human Nutrition Week 2 Notes
Kathryn Notetaker
GPA 3.3

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In class notes from week 2. All highlighted text will be on exam.
Tanya R. Falcone (P)
Class Notes
Science, nutrition, nutrition science
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathryn Notetaker on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NUTR 23511-009 at Kent State University taught by Tanya R. Falcone (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Nutrition in Nutrition at Kent State University.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
Science of Human Nutrition Week 2 notes  Fats  3 main sub classifications & cholesterol  Saturated fats- consumed in moderation  not unhealthy/ not healthy  mainly in animal products/biproducts  9 calories per gram  can increase cholesterol levels  anything that’s solid at room temperature is high in saturated fats  ex. coconut oil  unsaturated fats-healthy fats, consumed more often  plant products, fish, oils, avocados  9 calories per gram  can help decrease risk of heart disease  Trans fats- over processed or overheated unsaturated fats (EXAM QUESTION)  cooking with olive oil can create trans fats  9 calories per gram  can increase cholesterol levels  Cholesterol  only found in animals  0 calories  high levels increase risk of heart attack or stroke  not essential because our body makes it, don’t need from food (EXAM QUESTION)  Vitamins & minerals - found in food  13 different vitamins  0 calories  15 different minerals  vitamins and minerals help to transport energy from point A to point B (EXAM QUESTION)  Water- essential for life  11-15 cups daily from food and fluids  0 calories  Phytochemicals  provide plants with color  a nutrient that is considered to be a non-essential, our body doesn’t make them but they are very good for us  color of food determines what kind  chlorophyll overpowers- most green foods have most of the phytochemicals  red bell peppers have more vitamin C than an orange  Brussel sprouts contain the highest amount of phytochemicals  proven multiple times that if ingested at least 3-4 times a week, can reduce cancer by 40% (EXAM QUESTION)  Antioxidants  can be vitamins and minerals  betters our health  removes a lot of damage caused by oxidation  damage caused to the tissues and cells in the body  breathing  if you don’t feed your body after working out, you can’t repair  free radicals- free lone molecules don’t like to be alone, they latch on to everything they see and breaks it apart  antioxidants provide other molecule to stick to the free radical, stops it from hurting everything else  Essential nutrients  Vitamins  biotin  folate  niacin  pantothenic acid  riboflavin  thiamine  B6  B12  Vitamin C, A, D, E, K  Minerals  calcium  chloride  chromium  copper  fluoride  iodine  iron  magnesium  manganese  molybdenum  phosphorus  potassium  selenium  sodium  zinc  Our bodies don’t make any of this  except Vitamin K: our gut makes 50% of daily value, still have to get the other 50% from diet  Omega 3 & 6  certain amino acids  Non-essential nutrients  cholesterol  certain amino acids  phytochemicals  Requirements (REMEMBER FACTORS FOR EXAM)  Varies from person to person and day by day  based on age-  as we age, we require less calories and more vitamins and minerals gender  females tend to carry more body fat  men tend to burn more body fat than women growth status body size  everybody has a different bone density/mass genetic traits  we are born with different fat cells, more storage capacity (can hold on to more fat than someone else)  in addition to certain conditions pregnancy  you are creating tissue, need only a couple hundred more calories breastfeeding illness  should increase calories (EXAM QUESTION)  shortens illness by almost 5 days  increase proteins drug use  heroin-gain weight in the beginning stages, a suppressant  prescription meds  steroids- cause fat mobilization- increase weight exposure to environmental contaminants  more damage (oxidation)- eat more antioxidants  RDA vs DRI  RDA (recommended dietary allowances): the minimal amount required for survival (EXAM QUESTION)  ex. RDA is 900 calories-needed for body to function properly  DRI (dietary reference intake): a set of reference values used to asses nutrient intakes of people  Nutrition Concept 3  health problems related to nutrition problems originate within cells  growth & health takes place within the cell & the fluid surrounding them  body consists of over I hundred trillion cells  functions are maintained by the nutrients it receives  problems arise when a cell’s need for nutrients differs from the available supply  Vitamin A-good for eye health (EXAM QUESTION) found in carrots  if the body is lacking vitamin A, your body gets the nutrition from breaking down cells in the eyes (causing night blindness)  Cells  are made from the 6 classifications  everything is made out of cells  if you don’t have vitamins and minerals, you don’t have energy, if you don’t have energy you are tired  Nutrition concept 4  if you are eating too much/ too little- malnutrition or poor nutrition results (EXAM QUESTION)  If a child doesn’t get enough iron in their diet, it can cause learning disabilities  a low level of vitamin C can cause bleeding gums/ a high level of vitamin C can cause diarrhea (EXAM QUESTION)  when it can’t handle that much nutrition, it gets rid of it  take a vitamin C tablet, divide into thirds, take one in morning, afternoon, evening, so that the intake is spread out and your body absorbs it rather than getting rid of it  Deficiencies- everything starts in the cells  REMEMBER FOR EXAM  someone who has prolonged deficiency in vitamin A, 1 sign is night blindness (pupils won’t adjust properly) will eventually lead to blindness  sever deficiencies are not reversible, but can stop it from getting worse st  1ndtep-rdrolonged deficiency in vitamin A intake  2 & 3 step- both involve free flowing vitamin A in blood as well as A stores in liver  step 4- goes to eyes


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