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Oceanography Week 2

by: Ivana Szwejkowski

Oceanography Week 2 GEOG 2107

Ivana Szwejkowski
GPA 3.4

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About this Document

These notes cover Vikings of Northeastern Europe and the first scientific findings of early Oceanographers.
Dr. Joseph Kravitz
Class Notes
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ivana Szwejkowski on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 2107 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Joseph Kravitz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Oceanography in Geography at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
Oceanography Week 2 Vikings of Northern Europe established colonies in Iceland + Greenland prior to A.D 1000. They were helped in their travels by a temporary warming that caused the ice cover to retreat making for easier sailing. By A.D 982 Eric the Red had sailed to Northeastern Canada and later Eric the Red was on the “Lamb” for a murder or so they say, and wanted to put a lot of space between himself and the authorities. Son Lief Ericson reached new Vinland by A.D. 995. The climate had soloded that all colonies more abandoned including those in Greenland due to the advanced glacial ice. How do we know? The beginning of Oceanography as a Science  Ferdinand Magellenus voyage around the world. Proved that the world was round.  Soundings- Sir John Ross 1818; Rope + canon effected by currents  Midshipmen Edward Ross 1854; detachable weight (know where bottom was reached) st  Accurate soundings using electronic methods 1925 1 time  Darwin’s voyage of the British ship, Beagle. 1831-1836; origin of Atolls.  Edward Forbes (1815-1854) 1 biological oceanographer; stated that ocean is void of life below 300 fathoms- completely wrong  Thomas Hutley (1840’s) close friend of Darwin. Studied calcareous oozes and white cliffd of Dover  Mathew Fontaine Murry (1806-1873) US Navy used data of log books of ships that crossed the Atlantic and published findings in a book “The Physical Geography of the Sea in 1855  William Ferrel; first to explain scientifically that the wind caused the motion of the ocean’s surface water  The challenger expedition (1872-1876)  Fridtjof Nanseri expedition in 1893-1896 Aboard the Fram, showed the North pole was not a continent but rather an ice covered ocean  A new era in oceanography opened with the German meteor expedition in 1925-1927, using an electronic echo sounder (Fathometer) to measure the ocean depths with more than 70,000 soundings.


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