Popular in Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Department
verified elite notetaker
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Dickinson on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HORT 3440 at University of Georgia taught by James Affecter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.
Reviews for Week 5
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/09/16
Week 5 Notes for HORT 3440 CRN10344 (9/7/2016 -9/9/2016) Wednes day: Current requirements for Herbs in Home Gardens: Good drainage • Herbs need good drainage in terms of water and air • Soil preparation: Our local soils are heavy clays, need to add sand or composted bark to improve texture and structure • Positioning and pruning plants to keep air moving through them is important to discourage diseases; our hot, humid summers breed fungal diseases Soil pH and light • Soil pH: our soils tend to be acidic; need to increase pH to 6.0-7.5 in our area with lime; granulated or pelletized lime is recommended; have a soil test done • Sunlight: most Mediterranean herbs need at least 6 hours of sun per day; late afternoon direct sun is tough in the summer, but surprising how much the ones at SBG can tolerate; some species require more shade (ginseng, goldenseal) • Mulch is a must -Suppresses weeds -Conserves water -Moderates soil temperature -Reduces erosion and soil splash -Can be attractive -Use pine straw, bark, plastic, or other organic by-products; keep mulch a couple of inches away from the base of the plant stems Water and Nutrition • Irrigation: provide an occasional deep watering, once or twice per week during the summer, even though many herbs come from relatively dry climates; best to avoid wetting foliage • Fertilization: feed lightly 2-3 times during the growing season; use a balanced fertilizer (10-10-10) or one even lower in nitrogen (5-0-10) Over fertilization results in soft growth that is susceptible to insects, drought, and disease Friday: Primary vs. Secondary metabolites in plants Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids are essential to life and are termed “primary metabolites” because they occur in the major metabolic pathways of plants (respiration, photosynthesis, cell division, etc.) Plants produce many other compounds via other metabolic pathways, These compounds are referred to as “secondary metabolites”. They serve diverse functions in plants and are often the source of a plant’s medicinal or culinary value. Many plant toxins also belong to this group At one time it was thought these compounds were waste products of metabolism. We now know that many of them serve important ecological functions in plants including: • Attracting pollinators and fruit dispersers • Inhibiting bacterial and fungal pathogens • Deterring grazing animals and herbivorous insects • Inhibiting the growth of competing plants Secondary metabolites can be grouped into four large classes of compounds: 1) Terpenes 2) Phenolics 3) Glycosides 4) Alkaloids Terpenes • Hydrocarbons: compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen • Range greatly in size and structure • Include essential oils, resins, and polyterpines - missing slide - Resin: used in the production of pharmaceuticals, varnishes, rosin, insecticides, chewing gum, turpentine, perfumes, oil-based plants - Polyterpines- includes the elastic compounds found in many plants including natural rubber - Taxol is a terpene obtained from the Pacific Yew - Carotenoid pigments (the red, orange, and yellow pigments found in plants) are terpenes too, but they’re usually classified as primary metabolites Phenolics - All contain one or more aromatic benzene rings - Large and diverse category of compound range from small molecules to large and complex - Includes flavonoids, tannins, and lignin Responsible for the natural browning in apples Some essential oils are phenolic compounds Flavonoids: includes water-soluble pigments known as anthocyanins, found in red cabbage and many flower petals Tannins: used as stains, dyes, inks, and tanning agents for leather. Believed to function in plants by discouraging herbivores. Important flavor compounds in tea, red wine, and many fruits Lignin: actually a primary metabolite found in the cell wall of many plants. Gives wood its hardness and strength. Composed of thousands of phenolic molecules Usushiol- the poison in poison ivy Tetrocannabinol- a phenolic resin, active ingredient in marijuana Glycosides • Compounds containing a sugar (often glucose) with a non-sugar molecule • When these compounds are metabolized by animals, the sugar splits off and the non-sugar component becomes physiologically active • The non-sugar component is typically a terpene, steroid (lipid), or a phenolic compounds Saponins: combination of a sugar and a steroid. Form a soapy lather when mixed with water (used in shampoo). Bitter tasting cause gastric upsets Yams- compounds influenced birth control Cardian Glycosides: the active portion of the molecule is similar to a steroid. Cardiac glycosides affect the heartbreat. Fatal is consumed enough. Digitoxin from foxglove is important for treating heart Cassava- 6 most important crop. If toxins aren’t removed, cyanine poisoning Alkaloids • Nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites that are synthesized from various • Some are stimulants, some depressants, some hallucinogens, some poisons • Known for their effects on mammalian physiology, especially the central nervous system • Many are similar to neurotransmitters found in the brain, and most are considered psychoactive
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'