Psych 101 Week 1 Lecture Notes
Psych 101 Week 1 Lecture Notes
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Date Created: 04/21/14
O4O114 PSYCH 101 Introduction to Psychology Chapter 1 The Science of Psychology 0 Biopsychology focuses on biological underpinnings of behavior brain processes genes amp hormones 0 Developmental examines human physical psychological amp social development across the lifespan 0 Experimental focuses on basic processes such as learning sensory systems perception amp motivational states 0 lndustrial Organizational examines people s behavior in the workplace Personality focuses on study of human personality core traits behavior Social examines people s thoughts feelings amp behavior pertaining to the social world Science a process which involves systematically gathering amp evaluating empirical evidence to answer questions amp test beliefs about the natural world Empirical evidence gathered through experience and observation Goals of Psychology 0 Description to describe 0 Explanation to understand 0 Control to test 0 Application to apply knowledge for its own sake solve specific practical problems good to know difference between Psychological Perspectives Nature of Psych Psychology study of behavior amp mind 0 Behavior actions we can observe amp record 0 Mind internal processes we can t observe directly but can infer Psychology s Intellectual Roots 0 lIind Bod Problem 0 h Mind is a spiritual entity Mind is not subject to physical laws Mind amp body are same Mind is not spiritually separate of the body Mind Body Interactions relationship b W mental processes amp the functioning of bodily systems Ideas and knowledge are gained through the senses Observation is more valid than reason Wilheim Wundt first exierimental psychology laboratory Germany 1879 0 Concept of analysis of basic elements Introspection functions of consciousness Wilham James Modern day fields cognitive amp evolutionary psych Perspectives Different ways of viewing people Lense for examination amp interpretation of behavior Influenced by philosophy medicine sociology anthropology amp more Psychoanalysis internal amp unconscious psychological forces Sigmund Freud Strong emphasis on childhood sexuality amp aggressive inborn drives Extremely controversial theory expression of any thoughts that come to mind Defence Mechanism psychological techniques that help us cope without anxiety amp pain Repression primary defence mechanism Modern s chod namic theo P Y Y W Downplays importance of sex and aggressive motives Focuses on how conscious process affect behavior Early relationships without caregivers BF Skinner Origins Tabula Rasa Lockee Classical Conditioning Pavlov Law of Effect Thorndike emphasis environmental control of behavioral through learning Only observable behavior should be studied Behavior is determined by Prior learning Behavior modification decreasing problem behaviors amp increasing positive behaviors by manipulating environmental factors Cognitive modification learning experiences and the environment in uence our thoughts Our thoughts in uence how we behave 3 Free Will 3 Personal Growth 1 Meaning of One s Existence The nature of the mind How mental processes in uence behavior Modern Cog Perspective Reasoning decision making perceptions language problem solving ect Cog Neuroscience electrical recording amp brain imaging techniques Sociocultural perspective Culture values beliefs behaviors and traditions shared by large group passed through generations Norms roles for acceptable behavior within a group Socialization transmission amp internalization of culture Biological Perspective how brain of after badly functions regulate behavior Behavioral Neuroscience physiological functions that underlie behavior sensory experiences emotions and thoughts Neurotransmitters chemical that allow nerve cells to communicate to one another Levels of analysis biological and brain processes genetic in uences psychological level our thoughts feelings motives environment level past and current physical and social environment to which we are exposed Nature biological endowment vs Nurture environment and learning history BOTH must be taken into account 5 Perspectives of Psychology 6 66 Neuroscience Biological 6 66 Behavioral 6 66 Cognitive 6 66 Humanistic 6 66 Psychodynamic 40214 3 Biological Level brain functioning and hormones genetic factors shaped by evolution 3 Psychological Level Thinking memory attention Desires values expectations personality conscious vs unconscious 3 Environmental Level stimuli in immediate physical and social environments previous life experiences cultural and social norms Interaction the in uence of one factor depends on the presence of another factor Summary psychology relies on systematic empiricism subjective eXperiences behavior determined by multiple causal factors behavior is a means of adapting Psych Today founded in 1982 Largest single psychological association 1 Association for psychological science APS 1988 20000 members seeks to advance scientific psychology 6 V Emphasis on evidence based public policy 9 Design implement and assess intervention programs Ethics in Psychologica1l Resezg i a set of standards that govern the conduct of a person or member of a profession Researchers are obligated to 3 treat maintains their rights dignity 3 care of the welfare of animals 3 be honest about the treatment of data Historical Background 3 Little Albert 1920 Nuremberg Trails 1945 and 1946 APA code of ethics 1953 Xilliobreak state school 19631966 Milgram shock studies 1960s and 1970s 6 6 6 6 66 66 66 66 APA code of Ethics 1953 5 general principles 1 Benefice and non modified Minimize harm injury 2 Fidelity and responsibility Response to society highest standard of proof 3lntegrity Maturity 4ustice Be fair to everyone Reduce bias 5 Respect for persons rights and dignity secure welfares Nuremberg Trials Nazi doctors V Medical experiments at concentration camps Twins eye color change and conjoining Organ nerve transplant Head injuries Freezing experiments Malaria Mustard cuas Sterilization Tuskegee Bad Blood 6 advanced syphilis V 400600 poor black men from the rural south were diagnosed and left untreated to study V By the late 1940s participants were dying at 2x the rate of the control group but the project continued into the early 1970s even after the discovery of penicillin V Men not told they had siphilis Ethics Research with humans Risk Bene t ratio Risks Benefits fatigue time knowledge injury psychological physical social participants may receive future treatment Institutional Review Board IRB 6 least one non scientist varying levels 6 6 6 66 66 66 V Several faculty members from various departments at least one community member at Submit to Board rationale description of procedure potential risks consent forms Categories full review exempt minimal risks Risk extent to which participants find themselves in situations harmful to them Study s purpose amp procedures to decide if they wish to participate voluntary participation Willowbrook State School Studies V 1950s Hepatitis was rampant 6 V staff deliberately infected new admissions w out treatment to study treatment for disease gt led to improved treatment 3 Parents coerced into giving consent by pressure of not getting into school participants not told all the details of the study at the outset or might be misled about procedure or purpose Only if justified amp equally effective alternative not available No deception regarding aspects that in uence willingness to participate Explanation to participants ASAP afterwards Milgram Shock Studies 1 Milgram wanted to study obedience to authority 3 Teacher gave shocks in a study of learning gt The confederate claimed a heart condition banged on the walls and then went silent 3 65 participants administered the final 450 volt shock 3 Extreme emotional distress amp inflicted insight experimenter answers any questions amp informs participants of the purpose of study Two Purposes 3 Dehoaxing reveal purpose of the study 3 Desensitizing decrease stress amp negative feelings that might have been experienced during the study Leakage participants talk to each other potential participants and inform them of the study and its purpose 4 O3 14 Confidentiality right to privacy protect privileged information 3 identities of participants must not be known to anyone outside staff 3 Data kept secure 3 Children mentally ill prisoners amp pregnant women protected population gt All research must go through full IRB review gt children under 18 verbal amp written consent 3 Audio amp video must be acknowledged by participants 1 Desensitizing be prepared arrange for counseling if needed mandated reporting Little Albert 3 conditioned to be afraid of white rats gt led to fear of many white and furry things eg bunnies white carpet 3 No attempt to remove fear Understanding Behavior 3 Hindsight after the fact reasoning after a conclusion has been drawn gt Limitation past events can be explained in multiple ways gt Strengths provides ideas for further scientific study Empiricism How to Know Things V 3 things making people hard to study gt Complexity gt Variability gt Reactivity Experience as a way of knowing V Advantages gt observable information is publicly verifiable by others gt basis for science V Disadvantages gt not all experiences are measurable gt subjective Dogmatism the tendency for people to cling to their assumptions better to measure directly curiosity skepticism and open mindness Facilitated Communication 66 quot revolutionary treatment for autism extraordinary claims Bikkan 1990 thought it was primarily a motor disorder Experimenter sat next to nonverbal child with autism and guided the child s hand over a keyboard V Students seemed to make stunning progress in communication 6 6 66 66 0 Students began making allegations of brutal sexual abuse 0 Dozens of controlled studies examined phenomenon 0 Issue between what the experimenter saw and what was described to child eg experimenter sees dog child sees that a cat is defined as a dog 0 Some still practice facilitated communication Prefrontal Lobotomy Psychosurgery amp Reliance on Subjective Impressions Scientific Method Observe behaviors gt Form Hypothesis gt Test gt Analyze amp report gt Evaluate U Loop back to Form Hypothesis 6 V Identify a question of Interest 6 V Gather information amp form hypothesis 6 V Test hypothesis 1 Theories are formed based on repeated observations of behavior used to understand behavior must be testable Theogg a hypothetical account of how and why a phenomenon occurs usually in the form of a statement about the causal relationship between two or more properties theories never proven broad general Hypothesis specific testable 6 organizes info 6 66 testable creates new hypothesis 6 66 supported by the ndings of new research 6 66 follows Law of Parsimony simpler is better 2 A hypothesis is required to test a theory Empirical questions testable prediction that can be falsi ed once tested revised Observe xi Explain Measurement define what we wish to measure find a way to detect it Operation definition define what we wish to define in concrete terms detect what our definition describes 6 6 6 66 66 66 Easy to measure physical properties 6 66 Not so easy to measure psychological properties 3 Hypothesis is tested through one of many research methods 3 descriptive 3 correlation 3 experimental Descriptive how humans amp other animals behave in natural settings Naturalistic Observation watching behavior in real world settings 0 high degree good of external validity extent to which we generalize our findings to the real world 0 low degree of internal validity extent to which we can draw cause and effect inferences O A college campus is a readily available laboratory Case Study designs individual group event 0 Depth is traded for breadth Common w rare types of brain damage Helpful in providing existence proof but can be misleading and anecdotal Cannot determine cause and effect Difficult to generalize Lack of objectivity in gathering and interpreting data Survey research 0 obtained primarily through questions interviews 0 Population all people we are interested in drawing a conclusion about 0 Sample a subset of individuals drawn from the population 4 04 14 Psych Studies for EXC pool doesn39t open until Apr 9th 1Click on Get my Password login 2My profile 3Studies tab Only 3 hours max done online s ool uwashin tonedu Correlation the co relationship pattern between two variables each which have been measured several times variable something that can change 0 correlation design X Y 0 do scores values of one variable change as scores values on another variable change in a systematic way Correlation can be positive negative magnitude 100 to 100 Correlation Direction positive as score on one variable the other to increase in some direction think elevator ne ative as score on one variable chan e the other oes in o osin direction see saw 3 3 2 3 Levels of strength 0 weak 10 29 0 moderate 30 49 0 strong gt5O Illusory Correlation perception of a statistical association where none exists Third variable problem natural correlation variables that are causally related are correlated but not all variables that are correlated are causally related Third variable correlation the fact that two variables may be connected only because they are both caused by a third variable Bi directionality issue
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