COMM1101 Week 2
COMM1101 Week 2 COMM1101
Popular in Cases in Communication
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hyejin Kwon on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COMM1101 at Cornell University taught by Poppy Mcleod in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Cases in Communication in Communication at Cornell University.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
COMM1101 Lecture 3 - Diff. between a social science and natural science: social science no absolute truth- always right + limitations Communication theory roots - Interdisciplinary science built upon other roots - Communication borrows primarily from 2 theoretical traditions Socio-psychological (from Psychology) + Sociocultural (From sociology – Social theory= Critical theory tradition) - From Socio-psychological tradition, we also have the Cybernetic tradition (Borrows from psychology, computing science, engineering, etc.) - Semiotic Tradition the study of signs and symbols – roots most closely associated w/ linguistic (what are the words we use, what diff. kinds of language do we use to communicate) - Rhetoric tradition try to understand the use of language in order to persuade (comes from field of rhetoric) - Phenomenological Tradition borrows from philosophy (what is the nature of our interpretation of our experience) and lit (how do people interpret narratives, stories, etc.) The Rhetorical Tradition - The art of persuasion through argument and speech Epistemology Think of knowledge as being constructive and interpretive (no knowledge out there that’s set, we create the knowledge. Our knowledge is created throughout our interpretation, what’s the intention and meaning of that speech? There is more to that than merely words) Axiology values are inherent in the argument: Making the speech b/c someone believes what they’re trying to tell you or trying to make someone believe what they’re saying. Belief that humans have a choice – you have the choice to listen to the argument. The context matters in the speech – you have to consider your audience + tailor context to them Practical Theory Speeches are intended to achieve a goal, trying to make something happen. Not merely trying to understand or establish universal law. Specific goal under a specific context The Cybernetic - Focuses on Communication as a complex, interconnected system - Think of Communication as tying people together, focus on channels through which messages flow Nomothetic Theory –Experience, process, Explicit, holism, Certainty - Want to develop a sense of universality - Want our theory to apply to many situations - Not to achieve a goal but to understand + describe - Think that knowledge is objective Epistemology - Knowledge = objective Ontology - Human beings are social - All connected through networks - People affect each other (this is the idea of a system) - Communication produces some effect and that action will ripple through other parts of the system - Can’t be isolated in our communication Axiology - Values don’t really affect our understanding - Not trying to make a position, only trying to describe E.g. The Telephone Game - There is systematic distortion and degradation between input and output of information in a channel - People distort information to fit their expectations the distortions happen in ways that we can predict, they try to turn it into something to make sense to them. There is also loss of info Professor Karl Weick can we reverse the telephone? Can we get groups to reproduce the story? Set out to learn whether the information lost during transmission could be reconstructed - He and his colleagues did a ‘reverse’ telephone game - He gave people the version of the story told by the subsequent person and asked them to ‘correct’ it - B/c distortion is SYSTEMATIC (it is related to people’s belief, culture, etc.) - Thus you can reverse it The Socio-cultural Tradition - How does the social environment affect communication - Do you talk in the same way in class as you do in the dining hall? W/ your parents? Why do we do that? Axiology - These values vary across specific theories Ontology - Context matters it strongly influences behavior + social identity and position - Human experiences are social Epistemology - Knowledge is interpretive: what they believe is true is based on their reading of the social situation arises from empiricism (how do you know you can use slang? It’s not fixed, depends on how people read the situation) Based on evidence that we can observe - Knowledge is constructed and interpretive Nomothetic - They are trying to understand universal principles of how communication is affected by a social fabric The phenomenological Tradition - Interpreting their world through direct personal experience - Experience and knowledge are intertwined Epistemology- Process, experience, explicit, holism, Certainty - How we assign meaning to what those experiences are - Knowledge is interpretation of direct empirical experience - Communication assigns meaning to experience Axiology - Our values shape the way we think of our interpretation - Values Shape our act of interpretation - Values shape what is important in what situation - These interpretations happen through our values - They construct meaning from their experience Ontology - Humans construct meaning - Interested in this mutual (back and forth) influence that humans have on their environment and take from their environment - Their individual interpretations come from their own experience - But those experiences are rooted in a social fabric - It is a blending and mutual Practical theory - Although they sound philosophical and abstract - Interested in having an affect and making changes - See how our interpretation makes things different Branch of phenomenological tradition hermeneutics: Interpretation of something simple like a keychain. But it shows our interpretation of our lives – manifestations of our experiences, types of person you are, memories, etc. Our keychain is a kind of text- not merely a keychain but a text to be interpreted. The Semiotic Tradition - Study of symbols and signs - Assigning and interpreting meaning of signs and symbols, through language Epistemology- Process, Explicit, Holism, Experience, Certainty - Construct our knowledge of our analysis of what symbols signify - Knowledge is interpretive Ontology- Context, individualism, Choice, traits/states - Human beings have a choice in creating symbols - Choose to do this, choose to wear this shirt in order to signify that I am a member of this group - Meaning of signs is contextual the same thing that I do in this context means something different in another context Axiology - Values are important in our interpretation of these signs Practical theory - You want to make decisions based on your decisions - This means X that’s why you want to do Y
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