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Social Psychology Week 3 Notes

by: Bailey Anderson

Social Psychology Week 3 Notes PSY 270-001

Marketplace > Indiana State University > Psychology > PSY 270-001 > Social Psychology Week 3 Notes
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These notes cover the rest of chapter 3 and the beginning of chapter 4.
psy orientation soc psy
Dr. Sheets
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Anderson on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 270-001 at Indiana State University taught by Dr. Sheets in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see psy orientation soc psy in Psychology at Indiana State University.

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Date Created: 09/09/16
Social Psychology Week 3 Chapter 3 Continued th Exam 1 essay: Getting knowledge about oneself and multiple choice­ Friday September 16    Self­fulfilling prophecy o Not only do we seek evidence to confirm (&ignore disconfirm), we make evid­ behavioral confirmation  Snyder et al study(in text):  51 males to interact (“get to know”) w female on phone  Shown picture (attractive/unattractive); not real  Not surprisingly, men rated “attractive” woman as friendly,  humorous, socially­skilled. Took recording of phone call and let  others listen to female talk. Other people thought they had these  traits as well. Reason: the men treated the women differently based on their looks, which is why they seemed friendlier. –We create  our social reality  o Big Q: How can we stop effects of initial impressions?  Tell people of their bias doesn’t always work (often deny)  Motivate/reward accuracy might work­ text says “telling” to be  “objective” doesn’t­ at least one interview study offered interviewers  “reward” for “best/most accurate” assessment  Make target aware of perceiver’s expectations­may lead target to change  behavior­ we know self­fulfilling prophecy doesn’t happen if contradicts  target’s self­concept  Confidence diminishes with prompt (negative) feedback  Belief perseverance (once you believe something you can take away the  evidence but you stick with it) fails if imagine/reason opposite st  Knowledge about others is biased by 1  impressions o Where do first impressions come from?  Prior knowledge (from others)  Stereotypes/beliefs­ illusory correlation (belief in associations e.g.  attractiveness & social skill, beautiful=good)  Mental and physical states= embodied cognition (e.g. coffee cup study;  stability study) st  Research assistant met student on 1  floor of building and made an excuse for student to hold a cup with liquid (either hot or cold)­  people who held a warm cup of coffee thought the researcher was  nicer.  People filling out questionnaire sitting in seat that was either  normal or leg was cut a little bit to make unstable. People sitting in unstable desk thought that people with relationships needed to be  stable vs normal desks thought the Obamas had more marital  problems  Behavior of people o Attribution theory  Heider, friend of Lewin  How do we “explain” behavior?  Turns out, its tied to impression formation  Recall: what are two types of attributes?­ internal(dispositional)­ due to  person or external (situational)­ due to some external cause  Quiz show study­ students assigned to be Qmaster, contestant or audience. Given very difficult questions. Everyone was asked to rate Qmaster and  contestants:  Results: Qmaster rated himself no more knowledgeable  than anyone else. Others rated Qmaster as more intelligent  than anyone else.  Fundamental attribution error: when we see someone’s  behavior, we attribute behavior to internal explanations  more than external. We do this automatically  Students given descriptions of people: “lawyer donated  money to charity” “librarian helped old woman across the  street” given quiz and words to help remember sentences­ memory better for “kindhearted” than “books”; better for  “generous” than “court” = we judge dispositions from  single instances of behavior (spontaneous trait inferences)  Fundamental attribution error is for others but “actor­observer difference”  is for ourselves – we see situations as explanations for our behavior  Person A and B interact: Observer 1 watched A and  Observer 2 watched B. Person A and B made situational  explanations for their behavior “he was friendly so so was  I” Observers made dispositional explanations for behaviors. Then, person A saw video of themselves during interaction­ attributions reversed  When “we” act, we see environment and external forces pushing us  =situational attributions  When “others” act, they are focus of attention, we don’t see psych  environment causing their behavior  Other factors influencing attributions o Availability heuristic  Tendency to judge freq. from available example (easily comes to mind)  Often see people in the same places (where behavior is programmed)  40% of daily activities in same situation (=habits formed)  “available” evidence shows hi consistency (corr. Bias) o Culture  Western (individualistic) culture focus on individuals  “we are masters of our fate”= internal attributions  Eastern culture focuses on environment=external attributions o Time (pressure)  Under pressure, thinking is more simple (more heuristic) & FAE o Behavior vs emotion  Behavior is caused by “actions”  Romeo serenaded Juliet because he loved her.  Emotion is causes by “stimulus”  Romeo loved Juliet because she was beautiful.  Why are attributions important? o Influence impressions and treatment of others  Social policy (text): lazy vs laid off  Indicate “relationship” success (partner attrib)  Mental/physical health: “sadder, but wiser” vs “ self­serving” Note: internal vs external= simplistic Chapter 4  What is an attitude? o Common language: refer for global disposition­ happy/sad, positive/negative o Social scientists: an evaluative disposition toward something­ that is, a  positive/negative (approach/avoidance) reaction  Attitudes are part of a system including: o Affect (feeling/emotion) o Behavior/intention o Cognition ( thoughts/beliefs) o Attitudes may be “expressed” and “measured” via any of these o But research often measure attitudes via verbal statements/expressions (=what’s  typically meant “attitudes”)  Why do we care?­ expressed attitudes should predict behavior (politics)  Why don’t expressed attitudes predict behavior? o Perhaps attitude is a meaningless concept  Mishel & Personality, Wicker & Attitudes o This may be the wrong question.  When do expressed attitudes predict behavior? o When other influences are minimized  Aggregation effect (measure behavior over time) o When attitude is salient (in consciousness)   Dispositional­ strong/potent: strong attitudes  Situational­ mirror (71% vs 7%) : 71% of people cheat in room alone.  Only 7% cheat when in room alone with a mirrir o When specific to behavior  Being republican predicts voting republican (over time=agg)  But not this year, attitudes towards trump   Space doctor video o When expressed attitudes are “real”  People don’t always express honesty  Social desirability­influenced by “looking good”  Dallas cable: will you buy “adult” channels­most said no but 60%  did it  Hard to fake =reaction times  Implicit assoc. test (IAT) uses “sorting” task to assess positive/negative  connections


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