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Introduction to American Politics -Week 2 Notes (September 5, 2016)

by: Lindsey Notetaker

Introduction to American Politics -Week 2 Notes (September 5, 2016) PSC 101

Marketplace > University of Nevada - Las Vegas > PSC 101 > Introduction to American Politics Week 2 Notes September 5 2016
Lindsey Notetaker

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These notes include extra notes the professor said while going over his PowerPoint, textbook notes that I took while reading the corresponding chapter, and the vocabulary that is in the book that w...
Intro American Politics
Class Notes
american, Politics, american constituiton
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsey Notetaker on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 101 at University of Nevada - Las Vegas taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
Introduction to American Politics -Week 2 Notes (September 5, 2016) Chapter 2: The Founding and the Constitution  Key to my notes: all notes that are taken from the lecture will be the first section, notes I take  from the textbook will be the second section, and the vocabulary words from the chapter with  definitions will be the last sections! (:  Lecture Notes  The colonies were divided among each other and Britain made it worse  o When Britain decided to tax the colonist on tea it caused an issue and the Boston  Tea Party occurred   When the colonist dressed as Indians and dumped the British tea into the  harbor   Main goal was to unite the colonies, not technically gain independence  o They closed the harbor from others  o The Quartering Act­ local governments of the American colonies to provide the  British soldiers with any needed accommodations or housing. It also required  colonists to provide food for any British soldiers in the area. o Whole concept of revolutionary was “no taxation without representation”       Articles of Confederation­ the original constitution of the US ratified in 1781, which  was replaced by the US Constitution in 1789. o States has almost ALL the power  o No central government  o States could print their own money for trading  This increased inflation of the money  o Each state had only ONE vote regardless of size       Annapolis Convention­ meeting at Annapolis, Maryland, in September 1786. It was an  important rallying point in the movement toward a federal convention to revise the  inadequate Articles of Confederation.  o main goal was to solve economic issues between states       Shay’s Rebellion­ An uprising led by a former militia officer, Daniel Shays, which broke out in western Massachusetts in 1786. Shays' followers protested the foreclosures of  farms for debt and briefly succeeded in shutting down the court system. o Symbol of extreme weakness in the central government  o No national militia which would show foreign countries they are easy to be  attacked  Samuel Adams played a huge part in the rebellion      The Great Compromise or “Connecticut Compromise” o Mix of the two plans that were proposed  Page 1 of 7 Introduction to American Politics -Week 2 Notes (September 5, 2016)  Virginia Plan­ which focused on having representatives based on  population   Benefited the larger states over the smaller ones   The House of Representatives today  o New  representatives get in every 2 years   New Jersey Plan­ which focused on having representatives equal for all  states   Benefited the smaller states over the larger ones   The Senate House today o New senates get elected every 6 years   Staggered terms so every 2 years 1/3 of the people  get switched       Proper or Elastic Clause­ a statement in the U.S. Constitution (Article I, Section 8)  granting Congress the power to pass all laws necessary and proper for carrying out the  enumerated list of powers. Executive branch has been increasing their powers over time      Privileges and Immunities Clause­ a statement in the U.S. Constitution (Article IV,  Section 2, Clause 1, also known as the Comity Clause) prevents a state from treating  citizens of other states in a discriminatory manner.  o ex. Some states had gay marriage legal and others did not so the ones that did not, were not required to recognize the marriage of the gay couple   this is no longer true and supreme court ruled that unconstitutional  most common way for addition of an amendment is 2/3 congress propose it and 3/5 of the states ratify it  the 10  amendment says that anything not specified in the constitution for the national is  in the hands of the states       Bill of Rights­ the first 10 amendments that are everyone’s basic rights in the United  States  o This was to keep the radicals from being extreme and seeing the new government  as another Britain Federalist Antifederalist Identity  Upper Class Lower Class Ideology  Elite Citizen System Centralized  Decentralized       Judicial Review­ when the supreme court decides if an act is constitutional or not Page 2 of7 Introduction to American Politics -Week 2 Notes (September 5, 2016) checks and balances are not always good because it can cause gridlocks, but it is good  because no one person or group has too much power Textbook Notes Different levels of government are in gridlocks due to competing views Colonial America was divided into five sectors  o Elites   New England merchants   Sothern planters   “Royalist” holders of royal lands, offices, and patents o Radicals   Shopkeepers, artisans, and laborers  Small farmers  Britain decided to give the colonies a moderate tax on tea to help pay their debt Colonist were mad that they were not being represented in Britain o “No taxation without representation”  o Lead to the merchants and southern planters to join with radicals against the taxes Boston Tea Party started the rebellion to gain independence for the colonies Declaration of Independence was a way to unite the colonies together o Influenced by John Locke’s social contract  United States had no national military to protect against foreign invaders which was  EXTREMELY unsafe(1786­1787)  Weak government led to internal conflict  Annapolis convention was known as the second founding to come up with the  constitution  Shays rebellion was led by Daniel Shay who was a former army captain o Purpose: to prevent foreclosures on their debt­ridden land by keeping the  country’s courts of western Massachusetts from sitting until next election o Showed there needs to be a strong central government to help in time of crisis or  other nations could easily attack  Framers of constitution wanted to create a new government capable of promoting  commerce and protecting property from radical state legislatures and populist forces  hostile to the interests of the commercial and propertied class  A big issue with the constitution was the big states and large states were arguing about   representation o Another issue was the North and South were arguing over how to account for  slaves when it came to representation Page 3 of 7 Introduction to American Politics -Week 2 Notes (September 5, 2016)  Senate could ratify treaties and approve presidential appointments  House of representatives can originate revenue bills   House of senate of staggered terms meaning they hold office for 6 years but every 2 years 1/3 of the senate get replaced   Framers wanted the president to be able to make a decision in a timely manner   Constitution created a supreme court   The constitution is what hold the nation together and its laws  An amendment can be passed in four ways o Passage in house and senate by 2/3 vote, then ratification by majority vote on the  legislatures of ¾ of the states (38 states) o Passage in house and senate by 2/3 vote, then ratification by conventions called  for the purpose in ¾ of the states (38 states) o Passage in a national convention called by Congress in response to petitions by  2/3 of the states; ratification by majority vote on the legislatures of ¾ of the states  (38 states) o Passage in a national convention (as in above method), the ratification convention called for the purpose in ¾ of the states (38 states)  There are three constitutional limits on the national government’s power  o Separation of power  Makes sure that no one group has too much power  Legislative  Executive  Judicial Passes federal laws Enforces laws Decides constitutionality of laws Controls federal Commander in chief of armed Reviews lower courts appropriations forces  decisions  Approves treaties and Makes foreign treaties Decides cases involving presidential appointments disputes between states Regulates interstate commerce Proposes law Establishes lower court Appoints Supreme Court systems justices and federal court judges Pardons those convicted in federal court Page 4 of7 Introduction to American Politics -Week 2 Notes (September 5, 2016) o Federalism   More power to the national level but still giving states power o Bill of Rights   Gives the citizens rights  Federalist Antifederalist  Who they are  Property owners, creditors, and Small farmers, frontiersmen, merchants debtors, shopkeepers, some state government officials What they believed  Believed that elites were most Believed that government should fit to govern; feared “excessive be closer to the people; feared democracy” concentration of power in hands of elites  What system of Favored strong national Favored retention of power by government the favored  government; believed in state governments and protection “filtration” so that only elites of individual rights would obtain governmental power Leaders  Alexander Hamilton, James Patrick Henry, George Mason, Page 5 of 7 Introduction to American Politics -Week 2 Notes (September 5, 2016) Madison, George Washington  Elbridge Genry, George Clinton Thoughts of how to Fewer in government and all the Did not trust government prevent tyranny checks and balances would because they believed that the avoid the majority of population few would get too much power gaining together to overpower and control the people Thoughts on Bill of Did not think they needed one Think they needed a bill of Rights and would put too much rights to protect the citizens and limitation on the national place limits on the government government  The constitution is able to still be around because the founders worded it so that there  would be interpretation over the years to new ideas Vocabulary Words Note: These are in order as they showed up in the chapter, not in alphabetical      Articles of Confederation: America’s first written constitution; served at the basis or  America’s national government until 1789     Confederation: a system of government in which states retain sovereign authority except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government         Virginia Plan: a framework for the constitution, introduced by Edmund Randolph, that  called for representation in the national legislature based on the population of each state     New Jersey Plan: a framework for the constitution, introduced by William Paterson, that called for equal state representation in the national legislature regardless of population      Great Compromise: the agreement reached at the constitutional convention of 1787 that  gave each state an equal number of senators regardless of its population, but linked  representation in the house of representative to population      Three­fifths Compromise: the agreement reached at the constitutional convention of  1787 that stipulated that for purposes of the appointment of congressional seats, every  slave would be counted as three­fifths of a person     Checks and Balances: mechanisms through which each branch of government is able to  participate in and influence the activities of the other branches; major examples include  the presidential veto power over congressional legislation, the power of the senate to  approve presidential appointments, and judicial review of congressional enactments Page 6 of7 Introduction to American Politics -Week 2 Notes (September 5, 2016)     Electoral College: the electors from each state who meet after the popular elections to  cast ballots for presidents and vice president     Bill of Rights: the first 10 amendments of the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1791; they  ensure certain rights and liberties to the people      Separation of Power: the division of governmental power is divided, by several  institutions that must cooperate in decision making      Federalism: a system of government in which power is divided, by constitution.  Between a central government and regional government     Expressed Powers: specific powers granted by the constitution to Congress (Article I,  Section 8) and to the president (Article II)     Elastic Clause: Article I, Section 8, of the constitution (also known as the necessary and  proper clause), which enumerates the powers of Congress and provides Congress with the authority to make all laws “necessary and proper” to carry them out  Bicameral: having a legislative assembly composed of two chambers or houses;  distinguished from unicameral  Judicial Review: the power of the courts to review, and if necessary, declare actions of  the legislative and executive branches invalid or unconstitutional; the supreme court  asserted this power in Marbury v Madison (1803)   Supremacy Clause: Article VI of the constitution, which states that laws passed by the  national government and all treaties are supreme law of the land and supreme law of the  land and superior to all laws adopted by any states or any subdivision  Federalist: those who favored a strong national government and supported the  constitution proposed at the American Constitutional Convention of 1787  Antifederalist: those who favored a strong state government and weak national  government, and who were opponents of the constitution proposed at the American  Constitutional Convention of 1787  Federalist Papers: a series of essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison,  and John Jay supporting ratification of the Constitution   Tyranny: oppressive government that employs cruel and unjust use of power and  authority    Limited Government: a principle of constitutional government; a government whose  powers are defined and limited by the constitution   Amendment: a change added to a bill, law, or constitution  Page 7 of7


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