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BOT 200 Chapter 2

by: Keely Egelhoff

BOT 200 Chapter 2 200

Keely Egelhoff
GPA 3.6

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About this Document

These notes cover basic chemistry concepts.
Introduction to Botany
Dr. Meiers
Class Notes
botany, Chemistry, acids, bases
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Keely Egelhoff on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 200 at Western Illinois University taught by Dr. Meiers in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Botany in Botany at Western Illinois University.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
Chapter 2  Chemicals Bonds  Neutrons only affect the weight of an atom  Anion- atom or molecule that carries a charge is an ion, negative  Cation- positive ion  Electronegativity- electrons to move tot eh most stable position configuration driving force behind chemical reactions - Fluorine- great affinity for electrons, 4.0 - Noble gases have no affinity, 0.0  More stable means atoms have less energy  Exergonic- less energy when liberate to surrounding  Exothermic- energy released as hear  Covalent bonds- electrons share with other atoms  Ionic bonds- do not share electrons they take them  Polar molecule- slightly negative and positive on the ends  Hydrogen bonging- positive end attracts the negative end  Nonpolar molecules- not balanced 1. Water solubility and lipid solubility  Water soluble- when substances dissolve  Lipid soluble- nonpolar substances dissolve in other nonpolar chemicals 2. Acids and Bases  Acidity- the concentration of H+ measured as pH  Acid- any substance that increases the concentration of free protons  Base- anything that decreases the concentration of free protons  IF a nonpolar water insoluble molecule picks up a proton because an acid is present the non-polar molecule becomes positively charged and water soluble.  Carbon Compounds  Fatty acids- most carbon atoms share two electrons with each of two hydrogens and each of two more carbons  Single bond- contains one electron and one from another atom, arragned in a tetrahedron, carbon backbone is zigzagging not straight  Double bond- sharing two electrons with one atom, two sets of double bonds produce a straight molecule - If one double bond and two single bonds are present, the molecule is flat and shaped like a Y - Cis position when both Xs on the same side - Trans position when on opposite sides  Second-order Reactions  Two molecules react to form a third  Must collide violently cannot just be near each other, will not share electrons only passed through the orbitals, speed=heat- kinetic energy  Activation energy- energy needed to overcome electron-cloud repulsion and permit chemical reaction  If they have enough kinetic energy (moving fast enough) they will push close together instead of repelling themselves  Exergonic- energy liberating electrons are more stable (have less energy) in new boding than the old non-boding  Little moving will happen at low temp but a lot of moving and colliding will happen at a high heat  Catalysts  Allows a reaction to occur even if the setting is not right  In all living things catalysts are proteins called enzymes  Catalyst is not altered itself during a reaction  First- Order Reactions  First-order reaction only uses one molecule not the collision of two AB- A+B  Compound breaks down into two parts  Can be accelerated by heat or catalysts  Functional groups  Small number of families make up functional groups  Attach to carbon atoms can have lots of functional groups being both acidic and basic or lipid soluble and water soluble in others  Polymeric Construction  Polymer- large compound composed of a number more or less identical subunits(monomers)  Reduces the difficulty of construction  With sugars for the plant to make starch it bonds glucose together with a certain type of bond to make cellulose  Allows organisms to have a simple basic metabolism that produces only a few types of monomers  Allows for recycling and conservation of resources  After polymers are no longer need it is depolymerized back to its monomers  Allows various parts of an organism to work together in construction  Carbs  Usually only contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen  Can contain nitrogen or sulfur  Ratio of Hydrogen to Oxygen is 2:1  Monosaccharides  Simplest carbs- simple sugars  Classified by number of carbon atoms four- tetrose, five (pentose), six (hexose), seven- carbon sugars  Pentose and hexoses most abundant and important  They are flexible because of their carbon-carbon are single bonds  When one end of a molecule comes close enough to the other end the two may react forming a closed ring  The ring form is more stable  Because of ring formation monosaccharides tend to be rather unreactive relatively inert molecules ideal for construction transport and energy storage  Most plants use sucrose, disaccharide composed of one glucose and one fructose  Polysaccharides  Monosaccharides can act as monomers reacting with other monosaccharides to form polymers called polysaccharides  Oligosaccharides- extremely short polysaccharides less than 10 monos long named by the number of sugars they contain  Dehydration reaction- During bond formation an entire -OH is removed from one carbon a Hydrogen is removed from the other -OH group and water is formed  Hydrolysis- reversal of this breaking the bond by adding water back to it  Only a few exist  Energy of activation barrier of polymerization is high must be catalyzed by and enzyme  Starch- amylose and amylopectin is a long polysaccharide composed only of glucose residues  Starch synthetize recognizes only glucose  Alpa-1 4 glyosidic bond both glucoses are facing the same way  Glucose residue nor fully complete glucose  No branching is amylose  Highly branched molecule is amylopectin  Starch serves a long time storage of energy  Proteins  Unbranched polymers are amino acids  20 amino acids are used for protein synthesis  1(-COOH) carboxyl group causes it to an acid  -NH2 the amino group  -H  “R” that differs from one amino acid to another structurally, chemically, and biological  Levels of Organization in Protein structure  Amino acid sequence is the primary structure  Alpha Helix is when protein forms a helical structure also a secondary structure  Folded fat areas are called beta pleated sheets  Physical shape of a protein in a functional shape is tertiary structure  Positively charged regions attract and bind to negatively charged regions  Structure is also affected by pH and heat  If heated enough proteins will unfold and be denatured  Quaternary structure refers to the interaction between two or more separate polypeptides  Maintained by hydrogen bonding  Only when all polypeptides are aggregated the active sites are completely formed and functional  Allows for self-assembly of certain structures automatically associate into the proper structure such as a microtubule or an enzyme complex  Nucleic acid  Are polymers composed of monomers called nucleotieds  Boding of a phosphate group, a five carbon sugar and a complex ring  Pyrimidines composed of a single ring  Purines consist of two rings  Ribose and deoxyribose are five carbon sugars  Only four ribonucleotides occur because thymine is not attached to ribose  Uracil is not attached so only 4 deoxy ribonucleotides occur  DNA RNA found in nucleus  Lipids  Fats and oils substances  Hydrophobic and water insoluble  Fatty acids are the basic unit  If every carbon atom except the carboxyl carbon carries two hydrogens the fatty acid is saturated  Stabilized makes it hard to break down or melt  Double bonded to adjacent carbons make it unsaturated


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