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General Biology, Week 1 Notes

by: Shavon Notetaker

General Biology, Week 1 Notes BSC 2010

Marketplace > Florida State University > Biology > BSC 2010 > General Biology Week 1 Notes
Shavon Notetaker
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About this Document

These notes cover the lecture on Chapter 2 from the class (9/8/16).
General Biology
Dr. Marks
Class Notes




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shavon Notetaker on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 2010 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Marks in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 131 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Florida State University.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
BSC 2010 Chapter 2: Chemical Context of Life Concepts (Information needed for the Exam)  Life is built from chemical elements  The purest form of a chemical: Elements e.g.: H2, O2, N  Combination of elements: Compounds e.g.: H O, HCl 2  Atomic structure and how it determines properties of chemical elements  Chemical bonding between atoms creates molecules  Chemical reactions break and make chemical bonds Page1 of8 BSC 2010  Elements and Compounds o Elements  Cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions Why? Elements are composed of the same atoms. Altering the atoms component changes the element. e.g.: C – (proton) = N. Two different atoms = two different elements. o Compounds +  Contains 2 elements in a fixed ratio  Emergence – The compound exhibits different characteristic from the element it is made up of. e.g.: Na and Cl (toxic to the human body) NaCl (can be consumed and processed in the human body)  Elements in the Human Body* Elements Amount in the body (%) O 65% C 18.5% H 9.5% N 3.3% Ca, P, K, S,3.7% Na, Cl, M* These are not all the elements in the body but these are the ones you need to be familiar with. ** Not as important to know as O, C, H, N.  Periodic Table o The parts of the periodic table that will be focused on in this course are 1 18 H Ar For this class you can round nydroge 40.0n to the 0.1 place for mass. 1.0 Page 2 of8 BSC 2010  Atomic Structure o The atomic nucleus consists of protons (p , neutron (n ), and electrons (e . Atom Charge Mass components + p (found in atomic +1 1 nucleus) n0 (found in atomic 0 1 nucleus) e- -1 0* * The mass of an electron is so small it is negligible. Atomic nucleus  Important Atomic Properties atomic 2 number (# of He protons) 4.003 element symbol atomic mass Helium electron distribution diagram 2He  Electrical Charge o Charge of the atom depends on the number of protons and electrons e.g.: F- 9 protons and 10 electrons  Number of Neutrons/Isotopes  Isotopes – Two atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons in their nuclei 12 14 e.g.: C (6 neutronsvs C (8 neutrons) 6 6 Page 3 of 8 BSC 2010  Focus of Electron Distribution o Multiple electron shells surround the atomic nucleus o The first three layer will be focused on in this course Shell Max electron Example of atoms held 1 shell 2 H, He nd 2rd shell 8 Li, Be, B, C, O, F, Ne 3 shell 8 Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar Page 4 of8 (Lowest) BSC 2010 Increasing Energy (Highest) Energy Electron upved → Energy Application to the real world: Neon signs Electricity (energy) is added which bumps up the electron to another shell. When the electron drops back down energy is released in the form of light and a little heat. o Noble gases don’t react (inert) b/c they have a full shell o Non-noble gases react b/c they don’t have a full shell  Reactivity o Ionic Bonds (lose/gain electrons) - e.g.: Na + and Cl - Cation Anion NaCl o Covalent Bonds (share electrons) e.g.: 2 ,2O , 4H 2 H O Element Covalent bonds around central Page5 of8 BSC 2010 atom Oxygen 2 Nitrogen 3 Carbon 4  Non-Polar Covalent Bonds  The electrons are shared equally between the atoms  Polar Covalent Bonds  The electrons are not equally shared between the atoms o Partial charges are created in the molecule o The more electronegative atom (O) pulls the electrons closer to it δ- resulting in it having a partial δ δ negative + + charge while the other atom (H) has a partial positive charge  Electronegativity  Electronegativity – the strength of an atom to attract electrons o Electrons are not always equally shared between atoms o Atoms with higher electronegativity have higher attraction for electrons and pull shared electrons closer to the nucleus  More protons in atom have higher attraction  Bigger electron cloud/more electron shells result in lower electronegativity HC N O Electronegativity Note: Hydrogen and carbon essentially have the same electronegativity. For the purpose of this course H and C have the same electronegativity. Page 6of 8 BSC 2010 Summary  Atoms make-up everything  Elements are made up of the same atoms and cannot be broken down chemically  Compounds are combinations of a fixed ration of elements  The atomic structure is composed of protons, neutrons and electrons  Protons = positive  Neutrons = neutral  Electron = negative  Number of protons affect the type of atom  Number of neutrons result isotopes  Number of protons and neutrons affect the mass of the atom  Number of protons and electrons affect the charge of the atom  There are multiple (3) shells around the atomic nucleus  Nobel gases do not react because they have a full shell  Non-noble gases react because they do not have a full shell  Ionic bonds are formed when atoms lose/gain electron(s) and are attracted to each other  Covalent bonds are formed when atoms share electrons  Electronegativity is the strength of the “pull” an atom has for electrons  Chemical reactions break and make chemical bonds Page7of8 BSC 2010 Atoms “make-up” everything. This is why they are untrustworthy. Page8of8


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