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Chemistry 1210, Week 3 Notes

by: Grace Campbell

Chemistry 1210, Week 3 Notes CHEM 1210

Marketplace > Ohio State University > CHEM 1210 > Chemistry 1210 Week 3 Notes
Grace Campbell
GPA 3.687

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These notes cover everything that was gone over in lecture and in the correlating book sections from 9/7/16 to 9/9/16.
General Chemistry I
Class Notes
General Chemistry, Chemistry
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grace Campbell on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1210 at Ohio State University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
CHEMISTRY  1210  WEEK  3  NOTES     9/7/16  –  9/9/16     Chapter  3:  Stoichiometry:  Calculations  with  Chemical  Formulas  and  Equations     A.   Chemical  Equations-­‐  symbolic  representation  of  a  chemical  reaction   a.   Coefficients-­‐  indicate  the  number  of  atoms,  molecules,  or  formula  units  of  each   substance  that  is  involved  in  a  reaction   b.   Each  substance  always  written  as:   i.   (s)  =  solid   1.   most  ionic  substances  are  solids  at  room  temperature   2.   most  elements  are  solids  at  room  temperature   ii.   (g)  =  gas   iii.   (l)  =  liquid   iv.   (aq)  =  aqueous  solution  (dissolved  in  water)   c.   reactants-­‐  chemical  formulas  to  the  left  of  the  arrow   d.   products-­‐  chemical  formulas  to  the  right  of  the  arrow   i.   substances  that  were  produced  from  the  reaction   e.   Balancing  Equations   i.   Final  equation  should  contain  the  smallest  possible  whole-­‐number   coefficients   ii.   Never  change  subscripts,  instead  use  a  coefficient     iii.   The  number  of  atoms  of  each  element  before  the  reaction  has  to  equal   the  number  of  atoms  of  each  element  after  the  reaction   iv.   Charges  on  the  left  side  of  the  equation  must  equal  the  charges  on  the   right  side  of  the  equation   v.   Tips:     1   1.   Balance  the  molecule  that  has  the  largest  number  of  atoms  of  a   single  element  first   a.   Excluding  H,  O,  and  polyatomic  ions   2.   Balance  polyatomic  ions  as  a  whole  unit  (if  they  did  not  change)   3.   Balance  hydrogen  and  oxygen  last   a.   If  they  are  both  in  an  equation,  balance  the  one  that  is  in   an  equal  number  of  compounds  on  both  sides   i.   If  they  both  are,  balance  the  one  that  is  in  the  least   number  of  compounds  on  both  sides   B.   Simple  Patterns  of  Chemical  Reactivity     a.   Elements  of  the  same  group  often  react  in  similar  ways   b.   Combination  reaction-­‐  2  or  more  substances  react  to  form  one  product   i.   EX:  2Mg  (s)  + 2 O  (g)    à    2MgO  (s)   ii.   Oxides  reacting  with  water:   1.   Metal  oxides   a.   Basic  oxides  produce  basic  metal  hydroxides   b.   EX:  K 2  +  H2O  à    2KOH   c.   OH-­‐  causes  substances  to  be  basic   2.   Nonmetal  oxides   a.   Acidic  oxides  produce  acids   b.   EX:  SO 3 +  2 O  à  2  H 4O   c.   Decomposition  reaction-­‐  one  substance  undergoes  a  reaction  to  produce  2  or   more  other  substances   i.   EX:  CaCO (s3    à    CaO  (s)   2      CO (g)   d.   Combustion  reaction-­‐  a  rapid  reaction  that  produces  a  flame;  A  reaction  with  O   2 i.   Will  always  only  produce  CO and 2     2 ii.   Incomplete  combustion   1.   Occurs  when  there  is  not  enough  oxygen  present  in  the  reaction   iii.   Oxide  reaction-­‐  a  combustion  reaction  that  requires  intermediate  steps     2   C.   Formula  Weights   a.   Molecular  weight-­‐  the  sum  of  the  atomic  weights  of  the  atoms  in  the  chemical   formula  of  a  molecule   b.   Formula  weight-­‐  the  sum  of  the  atomic  weights  of  the  atoms  in  the  chemical   formula  of  an  ionic  substance   c.   Percent  composition-­‐  the  percentage  by  mass  contributed  by  each  element  in  a   substance   i.   =                (number  of  atoms  of  element)(atomic  weight)        x  100                                        formula  weight  of  substance   D.   Avogadro’s  Number  and  The  Mole   a.   Avogadro’s  number  =  6.022  x  10  atoms   i.   Represented  by  N   A b.   1  amu  =  6.022  x  10 grams   c.   Molar  Mass   i.   1  mole  =  6.022  x  10 particles   1.   a  mole  is  always  the  same  number,  but  different  samples  of  1  mol   can  have  different  masses   ii.   an  element’s  atomic  weight/molecular  weight/formula  weight  (amu)  is   equal  to  the  mass  (g)  of  1  mole  of  that  element   d.   Interconverting  masses,  moles,  and  number  of  particles   i.   Grams  (  use  molar  mass)  à  moles  (use  Avogadro’s  number)  à  formula   units   ii.   Formula  units  (use  Avogadro’s  number)  à  moles  (use  molar  mass)  à   grams   E.   Empirical  Formulas  from  Analyses   a.   The  ratio  of  the  numbers  of  moles  of  all  elements  in  a  compound  gives  the   subscripts  in  the  compound’s  empirical  formula   b.   Calculating  the  mole  ratio  of  each  element  in  a  compound     3   i.   Mass  %  elements  à  (assume  100g  sample)  grams  of  each  element  à   (use  molar  mass)  moles  of  each  element  à  (calculate  the  mole  ratio)  à   then  you  can  find  empirical  formula   c.   Finding  empirical  formula   i.   Divide  larger  number  of  moles  by  the  smaller  to  obtain  the  mole  ratio   (also  the  atom  ratio)   ii.   Multiply  by  the  simplest  factor  to  get  whole  numbers   iii.   Write  formula   d.   Molecular  Formulas  from  Empirical  Formulas   i.   The  subscripts  in  the  molecular  formula  of  a  substance  are  always  whole   number  multiples  of  the  subscripts  in  its  empirical  formula   ii.   Whole  number  multiple  =          molecular  weight                                                                                                                                                    Empirical  formula  weight   e.   Combustion  analysis     i.   Determines  empirical  formula  for  compounds  principally  containing  C  and   H                             4  


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