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Music: Chapters 8 and 10

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Music: Chapters 8 and 10 Music 100

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These are notes taken in the third week of class. Topics include the Baroque era, opera, sonatas, and concertos
Introduction to Music
Brian Hodges
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Notetaker on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Music 100 at Boise State University taught by Brian Hodges in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
Music: Chapter 8 – The Baroque Era  Baroque Era o 1600 to 1750 o “Baroque” had a very negative connotation o Architecture, sculptures, and paintings were very ornately decorated o Art was influenced by theater  Characteristics o Structured rhythm and meter with bar lines o Basso Continuo: bass line that is playing continuously  Figured bass  The way they wrote it  Score had the basic structure and notes, the performers were expected to improvise and fill in the rest  Ground bass (ostinato)  Pachelbel’s Canon  Repeats over and over again  Lays the foundation for the melody o Functional Harmony o Ornaments  embellishments added by the performers on stage o Background  bass notes that don’t call attention to themselves o Drama  provoke emotions  Florentine Camerata o Group of people in Italy evaluating art o Pulled inspiration from Greek plays  Found that the dramatic points in a play were accompanied by music o Introduced Opera  Opera o Purpose was to maximize the theatricality of music o Single melody with a simple accompaniment o Exclusive form – just for the wealthy o Based on Greek stories and myths o Two Parts to Each Opera  Recitative  Very free – flows with the dialogue  Speech part  Most of the focus here  Plot and dialogue  Bare minimum of instruments – won’t take away from the words  Arias  Has more structure  Song, musical part  Emotion  Almost a full orchestra of instruments o Examples  Dafne  The first real opera  Jacopo Peri in 1598  Claudio Monteverdi  Born in Cremona, Italy  Published his first works at age 16  Composed operas for the Gonzaga family of Mantua  L’Orfeo  Based on the ancient Greek myth of Orpheus – musician and poet o Does not have a happy ending o Uses dissonance  One of the most famous examples  Coronation of Poppea  Henry Purcell  English composer  Dido and Aeneas (Italian style, sung in English)  Dido’s Lament o Lament bass: descending bass line, repeating throughout Music: Chapter 10 – Baroque Instrumental Music  Early String Instruments o Viola da gamba  Bigger instruments  Played with a bow  Supported by the legs  Today’s cellos are supported by an end pin  Meant to be played in a group  Fairly quiet sound  Has frets like a guitar  Important for chords o Viola da braccia  Smaller instruments  Played with a bow  Supported by the arm  Meant to be the solo instrument  Modern String Instruments o Influenced by the early instruments o Designed to play solo pieces and stand out  Old instruments were designed to accompany the voice o Violin, Viola, Cello, Bass  Violin was the primary o Antonio Stradivari  Designed the gold standard for a violin  His violins are still the most prized violins in the world  Somehow he knew how to make them perfectly  The Sonata o Solo instrument (usually violin) and keyboard  Written on the treble clef  Alternates between slow and fast o Performers added ornaments to the music as they played o Types  Sonata di Camera  Played in a concert hall  Included dance  Sonata di Chiesa  Church music  Did not include dance o Trio Sonata  Two treble instruments and a Basso Continuo  Basso Continuo: cello and keyboard  Treble instruments are the soloists  Technically 4 instruments  Cello and keyboard play the exact same parts  Arcangelo Corelli o Master of violin o Created a school of violin technique  People would travel from all over to learn from him  His school still exists o One of the first to have a career on only instrumental music  Opera o Originally only for the wealthy o Opened public opera houses for anyone who could get a ticket o Recitative vs Aria  Originally, the focus was on the recitative  Now the focus is on the Aria  Recitative: plot and dialogue  Always comes first  Sparse accompaniment  Very free – up to the performer  Musicians play “checkpoint chords” o Signal the beginning and ending of each recitative o Give the singer a harmony to get back on track  Aria: emotion  All instruments come together  Regular beat and rhythm  Now focused on showing off  Ritornello Form: orchestra  singer  orchestra  singer…  Dacapo Aria o Pattern of A B A o Fast, slow, fast or Quiet, loud, quiet  Concerto o Competition between the orchestra and the singer o Imitation during the song o Singer’s line became very virtuosic o Singers became celebrities o Concerto Grosso  Removed the singer  Competition between instruments  Trio Sonata (concertino) + orchestral accompaniment (ripieno)  Lots of contrast  Followed ritornello form o Solo Concerto  One soloist + orchestral accompaniment  Soloist was usually a violin  Giuseppil Torelli  Wrote the first violin solo concerto  Standard pattern is fast  slow  fast  Progression o Vocal Concerto + Trio Sonata = Concerto Grosso  Solo Concerto


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