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Experimental Psychology week 3

by: emmy_rose4267

Experimental Psychology week 3 PSYC 266 - 05

Marketplace > Truman State University > Psychology (PSYC) > PSYC 266 - 05 > Experimental Psychology week 3
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About this Document

these notes cover lectures from week 3
Experimental Psychology
Ashley Ramsey
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by emmy_rose4267 on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 266 - 05 at Truman State University taught by Ashley Ramsey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Experimental Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Truman State University.

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Date Created: 09/09/16
Experimental Psychology  *no class on monday, no notes  9/7  Operational Definitions  Operational definition: the exact meaning of a variable by defining it  Experimental operational definition: specifies exact procedure for creating values of the  independent variable  Measured operational definition: specifies the exact procedure for measuring the  dependent variable    Reliability  Reliability: refers to consistency of experimental operational definitions and measured  operational definitions  Interrater reliability: the degree to which observers agree in their measurement of  behavior  ex) AP exam written section scoring by multiple people  Test­retest reliability: means the scores are consistent across two or more different  measurements  ex) bathroom scale measures the same amount 3 times each minute  Interitem reliability: measures degree to which different parts of an instrument to  measure the same variable achieve consistent results  ex) questions in a survey asking about the same thing    Validity  Validity: operational definition accurately manipulates the independent variable or  measures the dependent variable  Face validity: which validity of a manipulation is self­evident  ex) using a ruler to measure pupil size  Content validity: measuring everything you intend to measure  ex) Exam 1 covers all topics covered from entire semester so far  Construct validity: how accurately an operational definition represents a phenomenon  that is not directly measurable  ex) memory (digit span test, delayed recall task, iconic memory task, auditory memory  task, and a working memory task)  Predictive validity: how accurately a measurement predicts future performance  ex) ACT scores correlated with college GPA  Concurrent validity: the degree to which scores on measuring instrument correlate with  another known standard for measuring variable being studied  ex) compare tests results on a measure of anxiety to the evaluations by a clinician  Internal validity: degree to which when we make manipulations by IV that it is the only  thing affecting the DV  External validity: can you generalize your results to the population you were meant to  test (good representation of the population)    9/8  Physical Variables  Physical variables: are aspects of the testing situation that need to be controlled   ex) day of the week, lighting in room, experimental room  Controlling physical variables:  1) Eliminate extraneous variables whenever possible  2) Keep conditions constant where elimination is not possible  3) Balance the effects of extraneous variables when constancy of conditions is not  possible    Social Variables  Social variables: are aspects of the relationships between subjects and experimenters  that can influence experimental results  Demand characteristics: cues within experimental situation that demand or elicit specific  participant responses  Single­blind experiments: participants do not know which level of IV they are getting  Placebo effect: a subject receives something while they think they are receiving a  different thing and react how they should to the one they are expecting to receive  Cover story: false plausible explanation of the experimental procedures to disguise the  research hypothesis from the subjects  Experimenter bias: something the researcher is doing that could confound the  experiment  ex) experimenter might provide more attention to subjects in one condition than another  Rosenthal effect: the phenomenon in which experimenters treat subjects differently  based on their expectations and the influence on the subject’s performance  Double­blind experiment: the participant and the researcher do not know who gets what  levels of the IV    Personality Variables  ­Personality of experimenters make the subjects learn more, be more motivated  ­Employ multiple experimenters to run an equal number of subjects in each of the  experimental conditions (balancing)  ­Minimize face­to­face contact and closely follow the script  ­Videotape sessions to confirm consistent performance  Volunteers: more sociable, score higher in social desirability, hold more liberal social  and political attitudes, less authoritarian, and score higher on intelligence tests       


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