CHE 106 lecture- Classification of matter- Syracuse University
CHE 106 lecture- Classification of matter- Syracuse University CHE 106 - M013
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sophie Notetaker on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHE 106 - M013 at Syracuse University taught by D. McCall in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry Lecture I in Chemistry at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Sophie Akal CHE 106 8/31/16 Classification of Matter Matter ● Matter Material that occupies mass and volume ● E lement Substance containing atoms of the same atomic number ● toms Smallest representative building block of matter ● M oleculestwo or more atoms bonded within a specific geometry ● nergy Ability to do work ● Property Characteristic that gives matter a unique identity à (ex: color, specific heat, density, conductivity, etc.) ○ Properties can refer to either the chemical or physical characteristics of a substance. Scales ● Mac roscopic scale Observed with bare eye (boulder, human hair) ● Mic roscopic scale Observed with an optical microscope (red blood cell) ● Atomic scale Cannot be observed with an optical microscope (ammonia molecule, iron atom, etc) ○ Single molecules are generally atomic Phases ● Solid Fixed shape, fixed volume, hard to compress. Closely packed, molecules are rigid, ordered structure (ex: Iodine) ● Liquid Shape conforms to container, fixed volume, hard to compress. Closely packed, still move over each other quickly, disordered (ex: Bromine) ● Gas shape conforms to container; volume can change. (ex: Chlorine) *The phases of a substance are affected by temperature and pressure. Solid→ liquid Increase temp Liquid→ Gas Increase temp or Decrease pressure Liquid→ solid Decrease temp Ga s→ Liquid Decrease temp or Increase pressure In order of density Solid→ Liquid→ Gas ***Water is the exception. Due to its structure, when water freezes, the molecules are pushed farther apart (due to orientation of hydrogen bonds) so the volume of a given mass of liquid water will expand when frozen, thus lowering its density. (d=m/v) Properties of Matter ● Physical Does NOT change composition ○ Melting point, boiling point, hardness, color, density, odor, solubility ● Chemical Describes how a substance reacts ○ Flammability, reactivity with water, toxicity, oxidation, radioactivity, chemical stability ● Intensive Does NOT depend on the amount of the sample. ○ Melting point, boiling point, hardness, color, density, odor, solubility ● Extensive DOES depend on amount of sample ○ Mass, Volume, Energy Classification of Change ● Physical change Does not produce a new substance, and does not occur on the molecular level. (ex: crushing a soda can). Also includes changes in state of matter (ex: ice melting into water, sweat evaporating) ● Chemical change Occurs on a molecular level; produces a new substance. A chemical change accompanies a chemical reaction (ex: mixing vinegar and baking soda). Composition ● Pure substances composed of only one element (one type of atom). Elements are pure substances ○ CANNOT be decomposed through chemical reactions into simpler components ● Smallest unit of an element is an atom ● Compounds: two or more elements bonded together. ⇒ How are they made? By reacting elements and other compounds (chemical change). Most of these reactions require an energy input, they do not happen spontaneously. (ex: Haber process/ Ostwald process). **When you make a new compound, it will have its OWN chemical and physical properties** ● Mixtures Two or more elements or compounds mixed together ○ Each element/compound retains its own unique properties, and composition of the mixture may vary ● Homogenous/solutions Mixture in which composition does not change throughout (ex: air, water) ● Heterogenous Mixture in which composition varies (ex: Trail mix, soil) Separation of mixtures ● Mechanical separation Separated by appearance (ex: color) ● Magnetism Mixture contains magnetic components, so when a magnet is introduced, the magnetic components will be separated from the nonmagnetic ones. ● Filtration In filtration, a mixture is separated using a filtrate (such as a sieve), which only allows smaller particles to get through. ● ractional distillation Evaporation is used in this process→ liquids with different boiling points will evaporate at different rates, separating the elements. ● Chromatography affinity to adhere to other surfaces (different polarity substances) ● Gravimetric extraction: solubility and density (insoluble and different substances) **Chemical changes can be used but the chemical identity of one or more components will change (not a true separation, since it’s likely that only desired chemical will remain.)
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