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CHE 106 lecture- Classification of matter- Syracuse University

by: Sophie Notetaker

CHE 106 lecture- Classification of matter- Syracuse University CHE 106 - M013

Marketplace > Syracuse University > Chemistry > CHE 106 - M013 > CHE 106 lecture Classification of matter Syracuse University
Sophie Notetaker
GPA 3.7

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Notes on the first lecture- Classification of matter
General Chemistry Lecture I
D. McCall
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sophie Notetaker on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHE 106 - M013 at Syracuse University taught by D. McCall in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry Lecture I in Chemistry at Syracuse University.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
Sophie Akal  CHE 106  8/31/16     Classification of Matter  Matter  ​ ● ​ Matter­ Material that occupies mass and volume  ​ ● E​ lement­ Substance containing atoms of the same atomic number  ● ​ ​ toms­ Smallest representative building block of matter  ● M​ olecules­two or more atoms bonded within a specific geometry  ●​ ​ nergy­ Ability to do work  ​ ● ​ Property­ Characteristic that gives matter a unique identity à (ex: color, specific heat,  density, conductivity, etc.)  ○ Properties can refer to either the chemical or physical characteristics of a  substance.  Scales  ● Mac ​ roscopic scale­ Observed with bare eye (boulder, human hair)  ● Mic​ roscopic scale­ Observed with an optical microscope (red blood cell)  ● Atomic scale­ Cannot be observed with an optical microscope (ammonia molecule, iron  atom, etc)  ○ Single molecules are generally atomic     Phases  ● Solid­ Fixed shape, fixed volume, hard to compress. Closely packed, molecules are rigid,  ordered structure (ex: Iodine)  ● Liquid­ Shape conforms to container, fixed volume, hard to compress. Closely packed,  still move over each other quickly, disordered (ex: Bromine)  ​ ● Gas­  shape conforms to container; volume can change.  (ex: Chlorine)     *The phases of a substance are affected by temperature and pressure.  ​ Solid→ liquid­  ​ Increase temp   Liq​uid→ Gas­  ​ ​Increase temp or Decrease pressure  Liquid→ solid­ ​Decrease ​  temp  Ga ​ s→ Liquid­ ​ Decrease temp or Increase pressure     In order of density­ Solid→ Liquid→ Gas  ***Water is the exception. Due to its structure, when water freezes, the molecules are  pushed farther apart (due to orientation of hydrogen bonds) so the volume of a given  mass of liquid water will expand when frozen, thus lowering its density. (d=m/v)     Properties of Matter  ​ ● Physical­ Does NOT change composition  ○ Melting point, boiling point, hardness, color, density, odor, solubility  ​ ● Chemical­ Describes how a substance reacts  ○ Flammability, reactivity with water, toxicity, oxidation, radioactivity, chemical  stability  ​ ● Intensive­ Does NOT depend on the amount of the sample.  ○ Melting point, boiling point, hardness, color, density, odor, solubility  ​ ● Extensive­ DOES depend on amount of sample  ○ Mass, Volume, Energy     Classification of Change  ​ ● Physical change­ Does not produce a new substance, and does not occur on the  molecular level. (ex: crushing a soda can). Also includes changes in state of matter (ex:  ice melting into water, sweat evaporating)   ​ ● Chemical change­ Occurs on a molecular level; produces a new substance. A chemical  change accompanies a chemical reaction (ex: mixing vinegar and baking soda).     Composition  ​ ● Pure substances­ composed of only one element (one type of atom). Elements are pure  substances  ○ CANNOT be decomposed through chemical reactions into simpler components  ● Smallest unit of an element is an atom  ​ ● Compounds: two or more elements bonded together.   ⇒ How are they made? By reacting elements and other compounds (chemical  change). Most of these reactions require an energy input, they do not happen  spontaneously. (ex: Haber process/ Ostwald process). ​**When you make a new  compound, it will have its OWN chemical and physical properties**  ​ ● Mixtures­ Two or more elements or compounds mixed together  ○ Each element/compound retains its own unique properties, and composition of  the mixture may vary  ​ ● Homogenous/solutions­ Mixture in which composition does not change throughout (ex:  air, water)  ​ ● Heterogenous­ Mixture in which composition varies (ex: Trail mix, soil)    Separation of mixtures  ​ ● Mechanical separation­ Separated by appearance (ex: color)  ​ ● Magnetism­ Mixture contains magnetic components, so when a magnet is introduced,  the magnetic components will be separated from the nonmagnetic ones.  ​ ● Filtration­ In filtration, a mixture is separated using a filtrate (such as a sieve), which only  allows smaller particles to get through.  ​ ●  ​ ractional distillation­ Evaporation is used in this process→  liquids with different boiling  points will evaporate at different rates, separating the elements.   ​ ● Chromatography­ affinity to adhere to other surfaces (different polarity substances)  ​ ● Gravimetric extraction: solubility and density (insoluble and different substances)    **Chemical changes can be used but the chemical identity of one or more components will  change (not a true separation, since it’s likely that only desired chemical will remain.)   


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