New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

week 3 notes history 106: the us after 1877

by: Mary Earrey

week 3 notes history 106: the us after 1877 History 106 Section 7

Marketplace > University of Mississippi > History > History 106 Section 7 > week 3 notes history 106 the us after 1877
Mary Earrey
GPA 3.93

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

these notes cover the notes from class during week 3: topics such as the economy after the civil war, the rise of big business, railroads, technology (telephone, thomas edison, etc.), entrepreneurs...
The United States Since 1877
Tyler Dewayne Moore
Class Notes
history, 106, The, us, after, 1877, week, 3, economy, railroad, Big, business, Technology, 19th, century, thomas, edison, telephone, industrialization, Labor, Protest, pennsylvania, violence, social, world, demand, new, disorganized, distribution, Of, wealth, rise
25 ?




Popular in The United States Since 1877

Popular in History

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mary Earrey on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 106 Section 7 at University of Mississippi taught by Tyler Dewayne Moore in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see The United States Since 1877 in History at University of Mississippi.

Similar to History 106 Section 7 at OleMiss


Reviews for week 3 notes history 106: the us after 1877


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/09/16
Notes 9/6/2016 (week 3 Tuesday) The economy after the civil war  From 1869-1899 o Population tripled o Farm production increased 2x o Manufacturing value increased 6x  US became world’s economic power The Rise of Big Business  Important factors o The rise of an urban mass market o Speedier communications- telegraph o Plentiful supplies of coal o Thanks to the civil war o The wealthy people invested, they made money off of the war and had nowhere else to invest Railroads  The first big business  The first magnets for great financial markets  The first to develop a large-scale management bureaucracy o A group of individuals who managed the railroads  Created giant markets themselves  Construction skyrocketed – 30.6k to 199k miles  Most in the east  Great transcontinental lines  Union Pacific, central pacific  Built with government support  129M acres land, $700M in cash  Chinese population increased dramatically o Led to dangerous working conditions o Many died working on transcontinental railroad  Government recouped investment  Farms, ranches, towns increased value of land near the railroads  Government freight, military, mail Railroads- New Management  RRs could not be managed in traditional ways  Management bureaucracy  “Visible hand”  change in labor/management relations Technology  1790s- 276 patents, 1890s- 235k patents  Refrigerator car o Packing houses  Gustavus Swift- Chicago  Phillip D. Armour- Minneapolis  Corrugated rollers o Pillsbury in Minneapolis  Machine-made cigarettes o The Duke Family of North Carolina Technology- Telephone  Alexander Graham Bell- 1876  Competition from Western Union  Thomas Edison  Bell- American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T)- 1885  By 1899, AT&T had 49 subsidiaries and operated long distance phone lines Technology- Thomas Edison  Phonograph- 1877  Incandescent bulb- 1879  Storage battery, Dictaphone, mimeograph  Electric transmission, motion picture  Edison Electric Illuminating Co.- 1882 Entrepreneurs  Westinghouse and Edison rare examples  Most indutrialists pure entrpreneuralists  Organized and promoted industry  Three stand out John D. Rockefeller  NYC to Cleveland  Oil- 1859  Pennsylvania oil rush  Refineries in Pittsburgh, Cleveland  Standard Oil Co. of Ohio- 1870  Shrewd businessman  Faced increasing competition  South improvement Co.- 1872  Controlled shipping traffic  RR rebates  Insider information  Bought Competitors  Standard Oil: 90-95% of refining in 1879  Horizontal combination- list of steps and hierarchy Rockefeller- Vertical Integration  “pay nobody a profit”  made its own supplies, services  large sums of cash  owned pipelines, tanker cars, storage facilities  competitors driven out through price wars  vertical integration- do it all yourself Rockefeller  trusts- have long been used for people to manage the property of others  board of trustees  vulnerable to legal challenges  holding company- an incorporated entity, controls other companies by holding all of or the majority of their stock  standard oil of new jersey- 1899  pools, trusts, holding companies to reduce competition Andrew Carnegie  bridge building, steel, investments  steel- miracle material  Bessemer process- 1856  13k tons- 1860, 1.4M tons- 1880  rags to riches story, worked his way up  1873- wanted to focus on steel  J. Edgar Thompson Steel Works  Eliminated competitors  $40M dividends 1900  not a technological expert- a businessman  “The Gospel of Wealth”- 1889  Drew on Darwin, Spencer  New economy a natural development  Wealth for public good  Thrift, integrity, hard work  Horatio Alger o Novelist o Rags to riches story John Pierpont Morgan  Born rich- got richer  J. Pierpont Morgan &. Co.  Investment banker  Involved in operation of other firms  Brought stability  Hated free enterprise, competition  Consolidated steel industry  Bought Carnegie- $500M  U.S. Steel- $1.4B – 1901  Believed in the visible hand  Development of very large financial institutions- banks and commercial paper market th Factors in Late-19 Century Industrialization  Increased capital  Rise of an urban mass market  Speedier communications  Plentiful supplies of coal  Speedier transportations Distribution of Wealth  Rise of corporations- rise of living standards  Still a huge disparity of wealth  1900- 2% of families, 1/3 of wealth  1900- 10% of families, 75% of wealth  rags to riches uncommon  still, upward mobility widespread Demand for Labor  Demand for labor strong  Both semi-skilled and unskilled  Women, children, immigrants  Real wages rose: o 50% 1860-1890 o 37% 1890-1914  Working conditions dreary  1901- $490/year- New social World  High social costs  Death rates  Poor safety and health conditions  1913- 25k fatalities, 700k OJIs  no contact with management Disorganized Protest  Difficult to organize  Labor rights not respected  Unions slow to take hold  Impromptu strikes  Often violent Labor Violence- Pennsylvania  Pennsylvania Coal fields  Molly Maguires  Beatings, killings  Pinkerton killings  Indictments, convictions, hangings  Wage reduction  Miners’ National Association destroyed Labor Violence- Railroads  Pittsburgh- 26 dead, looting, rioting  Public later blamed workers  Strikes failed  Brought fears of a worker revolution  A new civil war?  Women active  Sand lot incident- San Francisco  Attacks on Chinese- scapegoats  Riots, mob attacks  Dennis Kearney- Workingman’s Party of CA  Called for immigration restrictions Toward Permanent Unions  “job-conscious” unions- 1850s  National Labor Union- 1866  8-hour day, co-ops, greenbacks, equal rights  union collapsed  some successes


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.