Psych 3331 Week 3 Notes
Psych 3331 Week 3 Notes Psych 3331
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Casey Kaiser on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 3331 at Ohio State University taught by Thomas Valentine in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Class 9/7 Quasi-experimental designs - The world determines who is in the experimental and the control groups The problem with this is confounds We can control for these by using "matched control participants" - matching experimental and control participants on important characteristics Natural Experiment - Nature, rather than an experimenter, controls an independent variable o Things like earthquakes Problem o Cannot be repeated at will o Very broad generalizations because these natural disasters are unique Analogue Experiment - The experimenter produces abnormal behavior in lab participants and then conducts experiments on them. o Used mostly on animals but has been used on humans Ex: Martin Seligman's learned helplessness experiments These experiments can be unethical Problem o Abnormal behavior produced in a lab environment is not necessarily the same as real world abnormal behavior o Lab is not equivalent to real life Single Subject Design - Study that involves a single participant observed both before and after the manipulation of the independent variable DIFFERENT THAN A CASE STUDY - the independent variable is not manipulated in case studies ABAB design (reversal design) o Assess prior to IV o Introduce IV and assess o Remove IV and assess o Introduce the IV again and assess If changes in the IV presentation correspond with changes in the individuals behavior, causal inferences can be drawn Problem Limited external validity o Generalization from a single subject is not very reliable This is a way in which you can conduct a study without worrying too much about money and collecting subjects, also great for unique circumstances After these studies you would typically want to test it on more individuals in a larger experimental design Benefits of experimental designs Provide higher external validity than case studies Provide causal info Statistical analyses are possible - important because we can be more confident in our generalizations Usually replicable Limitations Artificiality Subject and experimenter biases could be present Cost - much higher Protecting Human Participants Responsibility of the researchers and Institutional Review Board - VERY IMPORTANT The IRB is an ethics committee that insures that participants in the study will be safe Participants rights: Enlist voluntarily Informed consent about what the study entails Can end participation at any time Benefits outweigh the costs / risks Protected from physical and psychological harm Access to info about the study Privacy is protected (confidentiality and anonymous) Introduction: Model - a set of assumptions and concepts that help psychologists explain observations they have about a person Influence what investigators observe, the questions they ask, the info they seek, and how they interpret said info Each model focuses mainly on one aspect of human functioning, non can explain all aspects of human functioning The Psychodynamic model Earliest model that we stress in this course Sigmund Freud Central tenet: behaviors, thoughts, feelings, emotions are determined by the interaction between internal psychological forces of which we are not aware of Formulated in the 1890s and early 1900s Freud's take on the unconscious Our day to day experiences by things that we do not know the basis for, and we do not know how Thoughts, feelings, behaviors, we need the unconscious to explain them! We cannot explain why we do some of the things we do and we need the unconscious to gain an understanding of these things He believed in 3 central forces that shape personality The ID The Ego The Superego They function at the unconscious level The ego has a conscious part to it but they interact at an unconscious level The Id Force that produces our instinctual needs, drive, and impulses For things like food, sex, etc… Operates with the pleasure principle It always seeks gratification Fueled by libido, aka sexual energy If you were to think of your id as a person.. You might describe them as irrational, illogical, and instinctual The Superego Driven by the morality principle Psychological force that represents our values and ideals It has a sense of right and wrong that we have internalized from our interactions in society If you were to think of the superego as a person.. Moralistic, judgemental, and perfectionistic The Ego Psychological force that employs rational thinking Seeks gratification but does it more with reality than impulse Uses rational thinking and reason to drive impulses Develops upon realization that just because you want something doesn’t mean you are going to get it, our environment will not always meet our instinctual needs It uses defense mechanisms to control unacceptable id impulses to avoid or reduce the anxiety they arouse If the ego were a person.. Be rational, planful, mediating, take a role halfway between the id and the superego. o Takes into account your needs and your desires Defense Mechanisms with the ego Repression, denial, projection, rationalization, displacement, intellectualization, regression o We will talk about these more with certain disorders, read about them in the textbook. You can probably come up with examples for them Class 9/9 The null hypothesis is always that there is no relationship Freud and his psychodynamic approach Sometimes people like to depict this model as an iceberg, the part below the surface are the unconscious parts Id Driven by sexual instinct - libido. Even infants are driven by this instinct Superego Allows us to make good decisions Ego Tries to be the middle man between these two pieces A lot more rational When you have an acceptable compromise between these three forces - you exhibit normal behavior When they are in excessive conflict - you show abnormal behavior Freud also believed we had stages of development that we go through We won't focus on them too much in this course o Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital o When we go through these stages our three forces are being adjusted Fixation - a condition in which id, ego, and superego do not mature properly and are frozen at an early stage of development What this means is that subsequent development will suffer, and that can lead to abnormal behavior. Parents are often blamed for this Today's Theories The Ego theory - focuses more on the ego and considers it to be more independent and powerful force than the other two forces The Self Theory - we have a unified personality, emphasized the role of the self. Our motive to strengthen wholeness of self The Object Relations Theory - views desire for relationships as key motivating force in human behavior What ties all psychodynamic theories together is that we have interacting psychological forces that are accountable for human functioning How do we apply this model to treating people? Psychodynamic therapies The goal is to uncover past traumas and inner conflicts and resolve those conflicts so that personal development can be resumed Techniques: Free association - the idea that the patient says whatever comes to mind, important or not o Freud thought this was good because we needed to get at the unconscious and eventually as the person spoke they would get to those unconscious ideas o This is based on the idea that there are no random thoughts - everything is connected to what preceded it Therapist interpretation - therapists often provide interpretations of resistance, transference, and dreams o Resistance - an unconscious refusal to participate fully in therapy o Transference - redirection toward the psychotherapist of feelings associated with important figures in the patients life, either from current times or the past o Countertransference - the therapist treats the patient as they would treat someone important in their life outside of the therapy setting o Dreams - Freud believed defense mechanisms were not as strong during sleep, and dreams could reveal unconscious instincts, needs, and wishes Catharsis - the reliving of past repressed feelings in order to settle internal conflicts and overcome problems o This is important to do in therapy, Freud thought. By letting these feelings out you can get some relief Working through - the idea that you cannot truly overcome a problem unless you work through it several times o In order to resolve conflicts between these psychological forces you must explore the problem in repeated examinations in order to overcome the conflict o He would push you to go deeper and deeper to expand on what you are feeling and experiencing Current Trends: Short-term psychodynamic therapies - therapist and patient work one problem to work on o Today this short-term therapy is important because of money. Insurance will often only cover 12-16 sessions Relational psychoanalytic therapy - therapist more openly shares reactions and beliefs about what the patient is saying. Pros of psychodynamic model Helped to show us that abnormal and normal functioning may be rooted in the same processes o Once it was viewed that abnormal behaviors happened because of the devil o Freud said that both abnormal and normal behaviors fall on a continuum First to apply theory systematically to treatment Showed potential of psychological treatments Long-term psychodynamic therapy is effect for people who have long-term complex disorders Cons It is very hard to research this theory o It is very abstract. People say that you can't prove it is right and you can't prove it is wrong Limited research support The Hypothetical Case of Angela Freud would say that maybe someone important died early on in her life, and we need to work on these unconscious psychological issues to figure out what is wrong Might say that she had unstable upbringing and her parents did not provide her with what she needed and constant support How would you treat this in a patient like Angela? Free association, dream analysis - provide interpretations of her dreams and such Provide a place for her to explore her thoughts and feelings that may be the cause of her feelings this way It wasn’t long until there was an alternative view to the psychodynamic view- The Behavioral Model Central Tenet: maladaptive learning is the root cause of abnormal functioning Arose in the 50s to address frustration with the vagueness and slowness of the psychodynamic model Involves the application of principles of learning We have three ways of learning Modeling, classical conditioning, operant conditioning Modeling: Individuals learn responses by observing other individuals and repeating their behavior o i.e., acquiring violent tendencies via observation of violent behavior The Bobo doll experiment by Albert Bandera. Children watched experimenter act violently toward the doll and then the children interacted with the dolls. The control group did not act as violently as the experimental group Operant Conditioning - Type of learning based on consequences o Likelihood of behavior occurring again is based on whether or not it is rewarded or punished o i.e., compulsive hand-washing (negatively reinforced by anxiety reduction) Someone with OCD feels anxiety because they don't like the idea of their hands being dirty. They wash their hands to relieve the anxiety Four different types of consequences - positive and negative do not mean good and bad, just adding and subtracting o Positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, negative punishment Reinforcement = increasing a behavior Punishment = decrease behavior Positive = adding Negative = taking away Classical Conditioning Process of learning by temporal association in which two events that repeatedly occur close together in time become fused in a person's mind and produce the same response