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Archeology Notes Week 3

by: Joseph Notetaker

Archeology Notes Week 3 ANT 240

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About this Document

This brief section touches on archaeological methods, Primarily survey.
Introduction to Archaeology
Dr. F. Scott Worman
Class Notes
Anthropology, archeology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joseph Notetaker on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 240 at Missouri State University taught by Dr. F. Scott Worman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Archaeology in Anthropology at Missouri State University.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
Archeology Notes Week 3 Archeological Survey: o Purpose is to find important archeological sites o Prevent them from being destroyed Material Culture: o Artifacts: objects made, altered, or moved by people o Features: non-portable items constructed or altered by people o Sites: locations with evidence of past human activity o Human remains: isolated bones, skeletons, burials, mummified remains o Eco facts: items that reveal something about the past environment Getting Started: o Background research- what do we know? o Preliminary remote sensing  Aerial photos- identify sites, show extent  Satellite imagery (spectral)- different plant communities  Satellite imagery (visible)- see large sites, landscape modification  LiDAR- (light detection and ranging) identify small differences in topography (<10cm) o Check (“ground truth”) the remote sensing info  Make sure everything is accurate Kinds of survey: o Regional Survey  Find sites, settlement patterns in a region  Usually emphasize different ecological zones  Stratified sampling, modeling, and targeted survey  Identify sites for additional research  CHECK YOUR MODELS o Reconnaissance Survey  Investigate previously identified sites  Gather information to guide additional research and/or answer specific questions o Site survey  Look for sites (a particular type or time period)  Answer specific questions-interaction, resource use  Guide additional research o “Full coverage” survey  Usually done before massive construction projects  Crews walk transects, look for sites and artifacts  Shovel testing if the ground surface is not visible  In-field recording of sites, artifacts; may take samples  Info can guide more research or be used for management Survey results: o Site maps  Size, location relative to each other and natural features o Record artifacts and visible features  Type of site, timing of occupation o Manage resources, plan future work Regions and Landscapes: o Until 1950’s, mostly focused on large sites o Regional approach-all the sites  Political system, trade and resources, interactions o Landscape approach -site settings  Basic economy, interactions with environment Shabik’eschee village: AD 400-750: o 1 open-air archaic site excavated (1926-1928) o Archetypal Basketmaker III Village  Dozens of pit houses, plus a “great kiva” o Pithouses not all occupied at once  So is it really a “village” o Surrounded by hundreds of other pithouses  Dozens buried along Chaco Wash  Others spread across upland areas o Regional pattern  Part of a large semi-mobile settlement system  Seasonal or episodic aggregation and occupation o Landscape pattern  Local reliance on floodplain agriculture  Contrast with other Basketmaker III sites o Survey data change our understanding of  Social interactions at the site  How it fits with other sites/ the larger community  The local economy  Regional variation in Basketmaker III economy Secondary Remote Sensing: o Start to investigate the site before excavating o Identify some features, basic site structure o Use the information to guide excavations Look at the ground:  Drones, kites, balloons, etc.  See patterns not visible from the ground o Detailed LiDAR  Map site surface at very high resolution (< 1cm)  Identify patterns (visually or using software) Look under the ground:  Magnetometer  Measures tiny changes in local magnetic field  Burning changes magnetism of sediments identify buried hearths, burned structures  Sometimes can identify walls, pits, etc.  Problem: metal (causes wild readings)


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