Social Psychology 2401 Week 2 Notes (9/7 and 9/9)
Social Psychology 2401 Week 2 Notes (9/7 and 9/9) PSY 2401
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Asmaa Abdullah on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2401 at Temple University taught by Melinda Mattingly in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see FOUNDATIONS OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY in Psychology at Temple University.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
9/7: Week 1 Continuation: ● Observational Designs: ○ more work that goes into creating the research/study ○ one of the designs: Naturalistic observation ■ happens in natural settings (places that you go to on a daily basis) ■ ethical in public settings ■ people being studied do not know they are being observed/studied ■ advantage: ● more spontaneous/natural observations ■ disadvantage: ● researcher does not have aspect of control ■ Ethnography: ● is a setback of this method because researchers might be prone to believe observations according to their own culture might be ethnocentric (they might be biased to their observations based on their own cultures or ethnicities) ○ another design: Laboratory Observation ■ happens in laboratory ■ people in the study know that they are being observed ■ advantage: ● researcher has aspect of control ■ disadvantage: ● observations might not be natural because the participants know they are being observed ○ Naturalistic and Laboratory have opposite advantages and disadvantages ○ Disadvantages of Observational designs: ■ the type of behavior that can’t be observed is hard to study with this type of data collection ■ Infrequent behaviors might be hard to come around in public/natural settings Research Design ● Descriptive ○ Provides evidence that behavior is occurring but not why it is occurring (the why question is important in social psychology because we seek answers and explanations about those behaviors) ● Correlational ○ is considered a type of descriptive research ○ technique in which two or more variables are systematically measured and a relationship between them is assessed ○ describes the relationship between two actions; does not necessarily mean one caused the other (Correlation does not mean causation) (setback/problem) i. Thirdvariable problem: there might be a third variable causing both of these actions even though the two actions are correlated ii. this method might be used to trick people and exploit correlations (example: Advertising) ○ it still does not answer why the behavior is happening ○ Correlation Coefficient i. describes strength of relationship between two variables so that one can be predicted from the other ● ranges from +1 to 1 ● the closer the number is to 1 (whether positive or negative) the stronger the relationship ● number tells us strength of relationship, sign (+ or ) tells us whether it is a positive or negative correlation ● perfect correlation (+1 or 1) almost never happens in psychology ● the significance of the strength of the relationship varies from discipline to discipline (psychology, geology, etc..) ii. also tells us type of relationship or if there is a relationship at all iii. Positive Correlation ● increase or decrease together (go in the same direction) iv. Negative Correlation ● opposite directions; one increases the other decreases 9/9: ● Experimentation ○ Determines cause and effect ○ important but complicated ○ some variables are manipulated (changed) to observe the effect on other variables ○ other variables are kept constant (do not change) between the groups being studied i. we try to create as few differences to observe the effect of that specific variable that is changed ii. the element of control iii. this helps us determine the cause and effect relationship ○ one or more variables are being measured as the effect ○ Independent Variables i. variable that is manipulated ii. Subject variables ● quasiexperimentation ● a type of independent variable that the researcher can’t control/manipulate (things about participants/subjects: nationality, ethnicity, religion…) ○ Dependent variables i. variable that is measured ii. dependent depends on independent ○ Control Variables i. the variables that we are controlling/keeping the same to create as few differences as possible ○ Experimental Condition i. Participants who are exposed to the independent variable ○ Control Condition i. Participants who are not exposed to the independent variable ii. if you don’t have a control group, your experiment is not valid because there won’t be a comparison between control and experimental ○ Random assignment to conditions i. if we assign them randomly, the two groups should be very similar ii. helps get rid of criticisms of errors in experiment ○ Confound i. an error in our data that renders it useless ii. mostly an unintended independent variable that messes up our cause and effect observation ○ Internal Validity i. if we follow all the rules of the experiment, we can say our experiment has a high degree of internal validity and vice versa ii. internal validity allows us to make the causeeffect statement ● meaning that the differences that i find in my dependent variable are due to the differences in my independent variable iii. to increase internal validity ● doubleblind study ○ participant does not know whether they are in control or experimental group ○ experimenter also does not know whether the participant is in a control or experimental group ○ Experimenter expectancy effects decrease because experimenter doesn’t observe the participant based on his/her own expectations of the control/experimental study ○ best, but not always possible ● singleblind study ○ only participant does not know whether they are in control or experimental group ○ participant does not respond based on what is expected of him ○ External Validity i. our ability to generalize that whatever happens in lab happens in real world ii. internal validity and external validity degrees are opposite ● internal validity increases, external validity decreases ● maximum internal validity means that external validity is possibly not applicable to the study anymore ● there will always be limitations in experimental studies because of this iii. Experimental realism (to solve the issue with external validity) ● make the experiment seem as much as real life as we can ● the extent to which the experimental procedures are involving to the participants and lead them to behave naturally ● does not mean participant does not know they are in a study ● this should lead to more natural experiments ● Cover Study ○ a method of study where experimenter tells the participant the variable that will be studied but is actually measuring another variable ○ this improves experimental realism which in turn improves external validity iv. Mundane realism ● extent to which the experimental situation resembles the real world ● field experiment Research Ethics ● Informed consent ○ informs participant enough of the research study so that the participant can make the decision to participate ■ what participant is supposed to do ■ raises awareness to the risks in the study, ● even if they are simple/benign (bored, losing time, might be slightly uncomfortable) ○ minimal risks ● Confidentiality ○ experimenter cannot talk specifically of the person’s results ○ can talk generally but cannot single people out ○ best done by keeping results anonymous so that researcher has more accurate responses (yields more honest responses) ○ even if they are anonymous, a lot of people are suspicious and might not be honest
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