Psych 3313 Class Notes Week 3
Psych 3313 Class Notes Week 3 PSYCH 3313
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Casey Kaiser on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 3313 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Supe in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Class 9/7 Amygdala Defined by its connections Receives a lot of input from different sensory info Damage case study Charles Whitman, killed several family members, climbed clock tower and killed more people Autopsy showed tumor affecting amygdala o We can't say that this tumor caused him to do this but we can say it is an interesting finding o It is possible that the tumor changed the way he saw threats If someone has a brain abnormality are they at the same level of guilt as someone who does not Hippocampus Key function tied here is processing new memory Roles in: Spatial info processing Forming new long-term declarative memories - the things we know we know Why is it called this? Looks like a seahorse, in original Greek mythology the seahorse was called something close to hippocampus Clear organized structure in the brain Very elaborate and ornate Cingulate Cortex Anterior Cingulate - front half toward the forehead Roles in decision making, error detection, emotion, anticipation of reward, pain, empathy Recognizes when things go wrong Posterior Cingulate - back half Roles in eye movements, spatial orientation, memory Affected early on in Alzheimer's Disease Septal Area Very small structure, can project to a lot of different regions Electric stimulation produces pleasurable feeling / reward Damaging lesions can induce uncontrollable rage and attack behavior The Neocortex 90% of the human cerebral cortex The cerebral cortex: 2 hemispheres, outermost part of the forebrain, sensory processing, motor commands, and higher brain functions Grey matter is superficial, white matter is deep Trivia Average 20yr old has about 100,000 miles of fiber pathways Stretched out flat, cortex would cover an area of about 2.5 square feet Convolutions increase surface area, relate to how advanced a species is Cortical Features Gyri (gyrus): raised areas - peaks Sulci (sulcus): lowered areas - valleys Fissure: large, often an anatomical landmark Sheep have more convolutions, rats brains are smooth, not many convolutions Encephalization Quotient - the size of the brain in comparison to the size of the body Cortex has 6 layers Differences by layer Layers and Functional relationships 1,2,3 - integrative functions 4 - sensory input 5,6 - outputs to other parts of the brain Thickness varies between cortical regions Just by looking at the cells themselves and how they are layered we can get an idea about functions Brodmanns's Map of cytoarchitecture - shape and layering of cells in the brain Pretty good map, widely used today New map came out last month with 180 parts to the brain unlike Brodmann's which had 52 Ways to Divide the Cortex Sensory, motor, association (bridge between areas) Lobes of the cortex Frontal Lobe Much higher proportion here than other species Most rostral / anterior part of cerebral cortex - toward the forehead Contains motor cortex, prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral cortex, orbitofrontal, Brocas area Roles in motor function, language, memory, many "executive" functions Motor cortex (precentral Gyrus) Part of the frontal lobe responsible for initiating body movement Interesting - what is near each other on the body is near each other on the brain Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Located at the top and sides of frontal lobes Many reciprocal connections with limbic system A lot of executive functions Attention, working memory, goal directed behaviors Medial Prefrontal Cortex Phineas Gage Before the injury he was happy, after his personality changed - more vulgar, impulsive He lived for 12 years after this injury, he had stable employment and everything Obitofrontal Cortex Located above and behind the eyes Impulse control Delayed gratification - you can postpone your reward (google the marshmallow test) Underactivity might be involved in ADHD, individuals with extreme antisocial behavior Frontal Lobotomies Medical procedure designed to disconnect the PFC from the rest of the brain Worked for certain patients, it calmed the agitated patients o Side effects - blunted emotions, easily distractible, childlike behavior Dividing the frontal and parietal lobes The Parietal Lobe Primary somatosensory cortex Very similar to motor cortex, more so in the mouth and genitals Damage here Very rare, but people will do things involving only the right side, no left Temporal Lobe Primary auditory cortex Medial temp lobe contains amygdala and hippocampus Occipital Lobe Primary visual cortex In the back of the head Damage here Person may not have the perception of visual info but sensation would be there - blind sight, super rare Photosensitive epilepsy Putting everything back together Contralateral Connections Corpus Callosum: large band of fibers that connects and carries info between the two cerebral hemispheres Anterior Commissure: small band of fibers connecting left and right hemispheres Human Connectome Project All parts of the brain are functioning as part of a group, none function completely individually This project: map the connections Micro: cellular Macro: regional o Really trying to define who we are o Mapping a human is very difficult Class 9/9 The Battle of Doctrines Camillo Golgi - neurons were so fast they must be connected (the reticularist doctrine) Vs Santiago Ramon y Cajal - thinks neurons are separate unique and different (neuron Doctrine) Cajal was correct, and Golgi's staining method proved him to be correct What are the cells of the nervous system? Glia Primary supporting cells of the CNS They were ignored for a while because they don't fire like neurons Neurons Primary functioning cells of the CNS What are Glial Cells? "glue" We thought that they were just taking up space kind of like styrofoam They are not neural and don't fire action potentials THEY ARE REALLY IMPORTANT Outnumber neurons by 9X - 86 Billion times 9 Physical and functional support functions to neurons May have many clinical implications Types and functions of Glia Astrocyte - in the CNS Oligodendrocyte Schwann cell Microglia Astrocytes Symmetrical "star" shape Structural matrix support for neurons but that is not all they do! Contribute to BBB - neurovascular units They have swellings at the ends call endfeet and those contribute to the blood brain barrier Transfer nutrients to neurons, block some circulating toxin form accessing neural tissue Isolation of the synapse After damage - they respond to the site of energy and clean up dead neurons / form scar tissue that inhibits CNS regrowth and connectivity. When they know there is damage they rush to the site and swell o They can be great in times of energy but they can also be our worst enemy - we need them to respond but we don’t want them to respond too much Graph is showing number of astrocytes in different species - Einstein had more astrocytes to neurons Oligodendrocytes In the CNS Very far reaching Schwann Cells In the PNS Each cell represents a segment Differences in these - Schwann cells promote regrowth, so if a limb is lost it is possible to reattach and regain motor control but not in the CNS What is the myelin sheath? Wrappers around axons that act as insulators of the neuron's signal Nodes of Ranvier - gaps between areas of myelination This sheath is relatable to an extension cord with the rubber casing around it Similarly if the myelin sheath is damaged it won't be as fast Can lead to multiple Sclerosis - autoimmune degradation of myelin What is myelin? Whitish, fatty casing around the axon Acts as an electrical insulator Not present in all cells o all motor neurons are myelinated o Most sensory neurons are myelinated Microglia The immune cells of the nervous system Sense molecules associated with damage and digest the debris They sense trouble in the system and when they find it they destroy it 10-15% of cells in the brain are microglia They can be really great, but can also cause a problem - they transfer into the active state too soon or stay in it for too long o This can cause neuroinflammation Potential contributor to neurodegenerative diseases Neurons The basis of information processing This is a very large scale type of activity involving neurons They can change their shape Extend processes, anything like that Most CNS neurons are with you for life and are never replaced but we can make new neurons as an adult, but not a lot Parts of a neuron Mitochondria - energy house, helps produce ATP Nucleus - contains all of our genetic information What makes the neuron special? The cell body / soma Fluid filled - cytoplasm Inside is the nucleus From here we can transcribe mRNA and from there we can translate it into different amino acids This is where we will see most of the mitochondria Also where we make most of the amino acids and proteins that help the cell survive Acts to gate information flow o and from other cells o Message will not always be the same o Sums up different kinds of input Neural Cytoskeleton - three fiber types Microtubles - takes materials from one part of the cell to another o Anterograde transport - from cell body to axon terminal o Retrograde transport - into the cell body o Tau tangles holds them together o Main road of material transport Microfillaments - assist in reorganization Neural Membrane - barrier and gate keeper Creates a boundary of what is in the cell and what is outside There are a lot of different proteins in the membrane o Receptors, channels/pumps, transporters Selectively permeable o Allows polarization Made of phospholipid bilayer There are channels imbedded and when open ions go through but when closed they don’t Neuronal Structure overview Dendrites - receiving portion of the cell Cell body - integrate the info received Axon hillock - if there is enough excitatory messages there will be a flow and an action potential Dendritic Tree Collection of dendrites from a single neuron Receives info from other cells Inputs may number in the thousands Dendritic Spine Points of expansion where you can have additional contact from other cells Sensitive to the type and amount of synaptic activity External and internal factors can influence spine morphology and density Peak density during ovulation Growth of spines is dynamic Plasticity Axon Starts at the axon hillock, where it joins the cell body Conducts action potentials Variations Some are myelinated and some are not - motor almost always and sensory depends Diameter varies by species o Larger diameter = faster signal Length o Local circuit - short projections, to neurons in it's immediate vicinity Myelination of Axons Nodes of Ranvier - bare space of axon membrane Collateral - branch off of the main axon Terminal - swelling at end of the collateral, output zone We can divide neurons into different categories Sensory - from body to brain and spinal cord Motor - from brain and spinal cord out to organs Interneurons - connect one neuron to another, fairly long reaching. More inhibitory than excitatory Structural Classification Multipolar - many dendrites and one main axon Bipolar - two branches and one axon, one dendrite Unipolar - single branch extending from the cell body Brainbow - shows intricate structure of neurons
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