HIST 1005 Week 3 Notes Myths and Ancient Greek Civilizations
HIST 1005 Week 3 Notes Myths and Ancient Greek Civilizations PSYC 3083
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeline Meyer on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3083 at Louisiana State University taught by Copeland in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 96 views. For similar materials see Psychological Counseling in Psychology at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Myth: Flood Creation Stories in North America Popol Vuh: (Maya) floods destroyed the human race because the Gods (polytheism) didn’t like them and wanted to purify the world. Gods try to make people through a variety of way: by mud, then wood, and then monkeys. Has a creator and maker theme. Lakota Creation Myth: (Sioux) believed that the world did not behave themselves so the creator was mad and wiped them out with only a crow surviving. Then, from there, humans were created again through the mud. Cherokee Flood Myth: (Cherokee) a dog warns a man about the flood, which prompts the man to make a raft. Rain came soon after. The guy only protected his family and let everyone drown. Functions of Myth: Josef Campbell “The Power of Myths” (1988) Helps explain complex problems: by helping individuals who don’t have a strong sense of the world Offers reassurance: by giving the idea of an afterlife Serves as moral guides: by having themes like if everyone behaves, nothing bad will happen Myth and Memory: Most myths are rooted in reality Pre-literate societies began myths through oral traditions Carl Jung: proposed stories are linked to the collective unconscious Collective unconscious: there is something in links us back to our ancestors and their memories Carl Sagan: something in DNA links us back to our ancestors and their memories Dreams: (i.e. falling from trees, getting chased by animals) linked to idea that there is something genetic about memories and dreams Genetic Imprinting: DNA can contain memories MIT Research: has successfully implanted memories into DNA Collapse of States: LOTS OF INSTABILITY Big river-basin states collapsed around 2,000 BCE Causes: environmental problems o Overuse of agriculture lands o Earth going through melting/drying period due to global warming Most Afro-Eurasia suffered from food shortages Transhumant herders raided fixed settlements for resources Now, they are not only worrying about the flood devastation but are now having to worry about invaders WHAT IS THE RESULT? See assimilation by the invaders Brought horse drawn chariots See a spread in technology (especially weapons-based) Identification of self vs. other o Rise in culture and ethnic groups Urban centers faced political crisis o People began to question religious/political order since state is not doing its job anymore by providing protection Small-scale microstates formed in other parts of the world Nomadic Movement and the Emergence of Territorial States Environmental changes led to the ultimate collapse of Kings and ruling elite in Central and Western Afro-Eurasia Walled-cities could not defend hinterlands: meaning not as many crops are being grown since they are being invaded, meaning more poverty since not many crops are grown inside the city itself Trade routes lay open to predators: when trade decreases, economic prosperity decreases Equestrian clans of pastoral nomads: spread of horses New habitat: those who survive live, hard time so humans must adapt and respond Need for adapting: Pastoral nomad and transhumant herders adjust much more quickly Migrating means moving to a more hospitable environment Nomads tend to displace other groups Horses and Chariots 1 domesticated in last 4 millennium BCE in steppes of Caucasus Mountains Headgear was developed for speed and direction for horse 2000 BCE, chariot was developed Chariot shortened time between travels and changed warfare Allowed for the spread of nomadic people Emergence of Greek Civilizations First discovered the Mycenaeans, but the Minoans dated back farther Myceneans: are said to be the beginnings of ancient Greek society in the 1870s by Heinrich Schliemann Heinrich Schliemann: wanted to discover Troy since the discovery of Homer’s story and believed it was based on historical reality. Toured Greece’s countryside to find it o Finds Lion Gate at Mycenae Acro, tombs with buried wealth, mask of Aagamenon o Finds Troy! And uncovered Mycenae civilization Minoans: on the island of Crete, most ancient Greek civilization, found by Sir Arthur Evans Minoans (3650-1400 BCE) Myceneans (1600-1100 BCE) Were peaceful, heathly, and Had complicated trade network viable Not as culturally developed as Knossos (a palace civilization): Minoans were not walled cities, were Geography: had main part of city spread out, was location for on high ground “Acro” bureaucracy and scribes Migrated from central Europe Had a commercial economy: between 1850-1600 BCE good at trading Brought Indo-European language, Had a Scribal Elite: that were horse-drawn chariots, and metal literate, part of the bureaucracy, working skills and kept records Had a warrior elite Writing: Linear A (still not fully Wanax: leader of each interpreted) and Linear B (pre- settlement, discovered through ancient Greek writing) written tablets Had running water, concerned about sanitation Agriculture: not tons of farmland, had terrace agriculture, are Had sports (i.e. bull leaping): for dependent on foreigners for food entertainment, kept people fit, Setllements were highly had the leisure time independent Possible, some form of bull worship Collapse: Greek Dark Ages (1100- 500 BCE) Had elaborate culture/art: many 1. Dorians: invasion in Troy frescos 2. Volcano perhaps Collapse: not exactly sure 1. Volcano: can create massive tidal wave 2. Poisonous gases 3. Earthquake: creates tidal wave 4. Invaders No bodies, must have been mass migration for some reason Minotaur and the Labyrinth: Minoan myth Minos was supposed to make a sacrifice to Poseidon every year of his best bull. He gives Poseidon his second best bull. Posiedon punishes him by making his wife Pasiphae have sex with the bull and have an Minotaur abomination. The diety Daedalus creates the minotaur a labyrinth. Now, neighboring states had to give sacrifices each year to the Minotaur abomination. A man from a neighboring city-state Theseus ends up killing the Minotaur. SYMBOLIZES? Possibly Athens. The Athens became tired of being overcharged for the crops from the Minoans and wanted to stop giving so much.
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