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Biology of Psychology

by: Myrissa Webb

Biology of Psychology PSYC 2010 - 001

Marketplace > Auburn University > PSYC 2010 - 001 > Biology of Psychology
Myrissa Webb
GPA 4.0

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Lecture on 9/7/16 and 9/9/16
Introduction into Psychology
Jennifer Daniels
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Myrissa Webb on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2010 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Jennifer Daniels in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
Biology of Psychology Neurotransmitters Glial cells  Cells that provide support and nutrition to the nervous system  Keep neurons in their proper place  Destroy and eliminate dead neurons and then often replace those neurons  Help to make sure that signals do not get crossed Kind of neurons Sensory Neurons - Carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the CNS Motor Neurons - Carry outgoing information from the CNS to muscles and glands Interneurons - Connect the 2 neurons Nervous System Central Nervous System  Brain and spinal cord primarily  Interconnected neurons form networks in the brain. These networks are complex and modify with growth and experience Peripheral Nervous System  Sensory motor neurons that connect to the CNS to the rest of the body  Autonomic - Controls self-regulated action of internal organs and glands. Heart rate, digestion, breathing. Happens automatically.  Sympathetic- Division of ANS that arouses the body, mobilizing it's energy in stressful situation (fight-or-flight)  Parasympathetic-Division of the ANS that calms the body, conserving its energy (rest & digest)  Somatic - Controls voluntary movements to skeletal muscles Brain Brainstem  Oldest part of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells, enters the skull. It is responsible for automatic survival functions Medulla Oblongata  The point where the spinal cord enters the skull and joins with the brain  Entirely controls the heart rate  Largely controls breathing, swallowing, and digestion (Also, sneezing, coughing, and vomiting.)  Neurons cross over to the other side of the brain here as well  Even the slightest damage in a critical region of the medulla can cause death Pons  Relay Station containing neurons that pass signals from one part of the brain to another  Fine-tunes motor messages  Processes some sensory information, especially visual info  Helps control respiration  Influence facial expressions Thalamus  The brain's sensory switchboard,  Directs messages to the sensory area in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.  Located just beneath the cerebral cortex at about eye level in the center of the brain Reticular Activating System  Essential to the regulation of sleep, wakefulness, arousal, and even attention  Vital function as heart rate and breathing  Also linked to sleep cycle Cerebellum  Controls body coordination, balance, and muscles tone  Located back of the head, called "little brain"  Two wrinkled hemispheres covered by an outer cortex  The primary function is to coordinate and regulate motor movements  Damage results in awkward, jerky, uncoordinated movements and may affect speech Lymbic System -a donut shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebrum, associated with emotions such as fear, aggression, and drives for food and sex. ' Amygdala  Two lima bean sized neural cluster linked to the emotion of fear and anger (aggression) Hypothalamus  Lies below (hypo) the thalamus.  Directs several maintenance activities like eating, drinking, body temp, and control of emotions.  Helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary glands Hippocampus  Memory Formation  Problems result in deficits in memory for facts but not in memory for courses of action  May also be involved in regulation of some reproductive characteristics like female sexual behavior, the onset of puberty, and the release of pituitary hormones Structure of the Cortex - Each brain hemisphere is divided in to 4 lobes that are separated by prominent fissures. Frontal Lobes  Behind the forehead  Control of voluntary muscles, intelligence, personality  Phineas Gage  Emotionally shallow, distractive, unaware of social mores  Prefrontal cortex- higher cognitive functions such as planning , reasoning, self-control, monitors and organizes thinking Parietal Lobe  Top and rear of the head  Registers spatial location, attention, and motor control


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