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ANSC 1011 Section 1 Week 3 Notes

by: Kristy Trahan

ANSC 1011 Section 1 Week 3 Notes ANSC 1011

Marketplace > Louisiana State University > Animal Science > ANSC 1011 > ANSC 1011 Section 1 Week 3 Notes
Kristy Trahan

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5. Feedstuff Classification 6. Female Reproductive System Lecture notes Email me at for further questions!
Introduction to Animal Science
T. Bidner
Class Notes
IntroductiontoAnimalSciences, ANSC1011, ThomasBidner
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristy Trahan on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANSC 1011 at Louisiana State University taught by T. Bidner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Animal Science in Animal Science at Louisiana State University.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
ANSC 1011 Kristy Trahan Feedstuff Classification  Eight categories o Dry forages and roughages  Greater than or equal to 18% of crude fiber -up to 50%  Low moisture: protein- 2-30%  Hay, fodder, cottonseed hulls  Easy to transport (square bales) o Pasture, range plants, and green forage  15-90% moisture  Grasses, wheat pasture o Silages and baleage  Process of ensiling under anaerobic conditions, fermented plant materials  Common storage method for feed, but does not improve quality  Classes 1, 2, and 3 are roughages (or forages) with greater than or equal to 18% crude fiber, 2-30% crude protein  Silages are usually fed to beef cattle on the feed lot (corn silage)  Harvest the whole plant (good forage)  Corn harvest (shelled corn)- shucks the corn off the plant and shreds it  Silage storage: stored in big storage bins/buildings  Ensiled round bales: advantage is that you can ensile it in the same day you bale  Good quality forage o Relatively immature, green, and leafy, not much stems, free of mold, palatable and free of foreign material  The first cut is best o Legumes vs grasses: alfalfa and clovers usually higher quality than grasses  Continued categories o Energy feeds  Less than 18% crude fiber, less than 20% of crude protein  High starch (carbohydrates), NFE (nitrogen free extract), high energy  Cereal grains such as corns, wheat and milo, by-products ANSC 1011 Kristy Trahan  Cereal grains: low protein quality, low Ca, moderate P  Not worried as much about quality because the bacteria are being fed first for the ruminants  Corn, grain sorghum (milo)  o Protein supplements (greater than 20% crude protein)  Mostly plant sources- corn gluten meal (CGM), cottonseed meal (CSM), and soybean meal (SBM)  Animal sources (more expensive)- fishmeal, dried skim milk, and tankage  Nonprotein nitrogen (NPN)- urea (more for ruminants)  HOW MUCH? SHOULD NOT EXCEED ONE-THIRD OF ANIMALS PROTEIN REQUIREMENT  Note- o Protein quality- non-ruminants o By-pass proteins-improve efficiency of uset  Very expensive feeds  Plant source- primary from meal of oilseeds, usually more than 40% protein  Purified amino acids or crystalline amino acids- bacteria fermentation by- products  Meals high in phosphorus but ties up with phytic-bound complex- enzyme phytase  Amino acids o First rate limiting amino acid: the first amino acid that restricts the performance of the animal o Will be an essential amino acid such as lysine, methionine, or tryptophan o Mnemonic device to remember: MATT HILL VP ANSC 1011 Kristy Trahan  Back to categories o Mineral supplements  Macro- Ca, P, S, Na, K, Cl  Micro- Mg, Mn, Cu, Se, Fe, Co, Zn, Mb  Needed in small amounts  Salt, bonemeal, dicalcium phosphate, rock phosphate, premixed, etc.  IMPORTANT TO BALANCE o Vitamin supplements  Added to mineral supplements for grazing animals, or as part of diet in finishing diets  Some vitamins interact with minerals o Non-nutritive Additives  Large group of ingredients added to diets for reasons other than their nutritive value (stimulate growth, improve FE, enhance health, alter metabolism)  Includes antibiotics (being removed), flavoring compounds, hormones  May be fed, injected, or implanted o Examples: monensin, mga, rBST ANSC 1011 Kristy Trahan Female Reproductive System  Asexual reproduction: offspring that is a clone of the single parent (mostly in single- celled organisms  Sexual reproductions: requires fusion of 2 parental gametes to form genetically unique offspring (gives genetic variation)  Reproduction is the most economically important trait in farm animal production o Production of young is the primary determinant of income in most species o Increasing reproductive efficiency will increase financial returns  Female reproductive Tract o Vulva- external genitalia (Vu) o Vagina- organ of copulation (Ve, Cv) o Cervix- barrier to pathogens (CX) o Uterus- site of fetal development (Uh) o Oviduct- transportation of oocyte and sperm o Ovary- oocyte development (O) o Broad ligament- (BL)  Uterus o Connects oviduct to cervix o Site of fetal development o Three layers:  Perimetrium (outermost layer)  Myometrium (middle layer)  Endometrium (innermost layer; layer women shed out) o Species differences  Simplex  no uterine horns, one cervix; primates and people  Bicornuate  Poorly to moderately developed uterine horns; cows, horses, pigs  Duplex  Two cervices; rabbits, marsupials  Oviduct (equivalent to the fallopian tubes in women) o Transport of oocyte (unfertilized egg) and sperm between ovary and uterus o Three segments  Isthmus  Ampulla  Infundibulum ANSC 1011 Kristy Trahan  Ovaries o Female gonads o Produces oocytes, which develop within follicles o Produces hormones  Estradiol (stimulates the follicles)  Progesterone (stimulates the CL) o Two primary regions  Cortex (the outside)  Medulla (in the middle/inside) o The horse’s ovary is different as compared to other species, with the medulla being where the cortex should go  Phases of Follicular Development o Folliculogenesis: immature follicles develop into more advanced follicles that may become candidates for ovulation o Preantral Phase o Antral Phase o Preovulatroy Phase o Ovulation- the release of an oocyte (egg) from the ovary o Corpus Luteum (CL)- after ovulation, the follicle sack becomes the corpus luteum  If pregnant, progesterone will keep the CL in the ovary to prevent another cycle o Luteolysis- stage where the CL regresses into nothing (cell death)  4 Classes of Hormones o Proteins  Gonadotropins- LH, FSH, GnRH o Monoamines  Serotonin, melatonin o Lipid hormones (based on fat molecules)  Eicosanoids- prostaglandins o Steroids  Estrogens, progesterone, testosterone ANSC 1011 Kristy Trahan Hormone Class Source Primary Action Estradiol Steroid Antral Follicle Estrus behavior Causes LH surge Progesterone Steroid Corpus luteum Maintains pregnancy Luteinizing Hormone Protein Anterior Pituitary Causes ovulation and (LH) CL formation Follicle stimulating Protein Anterior Pituitary Stimulates follicles to hormone (FSH) grow Prostaglandin F2 α Eicosanoid Uterus Causes luteolysis of CL  Control of Reproduction (describes how the hormones react with each other) o All reproductive function is under hormonal control o Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis o Hypothalamus: control center of reproduction  Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) o Pituitary: responds to GnRH to release either FSH or LH o Ovary secretes estradiol and progesterone in response to LH/FSH  Exerts negative feedback on GnRH, FSH, and LH  Estradiol produces LH surge by positive feedback  Estrous cycle terminology o Estrous (adj)- pertaining to the cycle (estrous cycle) o Estrus (noun)- period of sexual receptivity o Diestrus (noun)- period of sexual non-receptivity o Anestrus (adj)- absence of an estrous cycle o Anovulatory- absence of ovulation o Polyestrous- displaying numerous estrous cycles o Seasonally polyestrous- displaying numerous estrous cycles only during specific times of the year  Estrous cycle o Equivalent to the menstrual cycle, which is only in primates and people o Period of reproductive cyclicity throughout a female’s adult life o Two primary phases  Follicular phase: short period of estrus up until ovulation  Dominated by estradiol  Luteal phase: longer period from ovulation until luteolysis  Include development and function of the CL  Dominated by progesterone


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