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Music 302 Week 3 lecture notes

by: Clarissa Notetaker

Music 302 Week 3 lecture notes Mus 302

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About this Document

These notes cover instrument classification and musical textures.
Music in World Culture
H. Kaufman
Class Notes
texture, Classification, instruments
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clarissa Notetaker on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Mus 302 at Humboldt State University taught by H. Kaufman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Music in World Culture in Music at Humboldt State University.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
Week 3 Music 302 Music in World Culture Instrument Classification Chinese Model (2000 BC) -Based on materials instruments were made of -8 groups based on the spiritually significant number 8 1. Metal-- gongs 2. Stone--xylophone 3. Silk—strings 4. Bamboo--flutes 5. Gourd--rattles 6. Clay--whistles 7. Leather--Drums 8. Wood—woodblocks -Problem: with colonialism, instruments from around the world came to Europe, so European cultures were unsure how to classify them example: whistles now were made of clay, metal, and wood (and now plastic), so whistles ended up in different groups Indian Model (1500 years later) -Atreatise on all the arts--music,drama, etc classified instruments based on what makes sounds, what's vibrating 1. Stretch--strings/chords 2. Covered--percussion (drums) 3. Hollow--flutes 4. Solids--gongs -Problem: skin was stretched over drums and drums could be hollow, so confusion arose over which category drums belonged in. The four categories were also very vague. Victor Charles Mahillon (Belgian 1841-1924) -Developed a new classification system for the world -Based on vibration, how sounds are produced -Mahillon started in 1922 and never finished Hornbostel and Sach Instrument Classification System -Two German men, Hornbostel and Curt Sachs, continued Mahillon's work -Made a place for every existing and forthcoming instrument Four categories: 1. Aerophone: instrument that produces sound by the vibration of a column of air subsets: 1. lip vibrated—trumpet 2. mouth hole--flutes (transverse--held to the side), clarinet 3. reed--single and double, sounds squeaky like a snake charmer 2. Idiophone: instrument that produces sound by the vibration of the body of the instrument. Sound is not modified by string or skin. examples: gong, musical saw, calimba, shaker -Idiophones can be rubbed or struck--the activation doesn't matter but what is being vibrated 3. Membranophone: vibration of a skin (membrane) example: drum, which can be struck or rubbed varies by number of skins, how skin is stretched, its tautness, whether the drum is closed or open bottom or double/single headed 4. Chordophone: vibration of a string (chord) example: piano subsets: 1. zither: strings are stretched between two ends of a flat body often hammered or plucked, not usually bowed 2. lute: strings are stretched between a neck and body examples: ukulele, guitar number of strings varies 3. lyre: strings stretch from a yoke (crossbar with two side arms) to a body 4. harp: body with a triangular frame--strings stretch perpendicular to the body example: bow -Determine an instrument's class through elimination: example: No string No skin No blowing It's an idiophone Musical Textures Texture -can be felt or seen -In music, it is the pattern of sound created by elements (voice, melody) of a musical work. -elements are the number of parts, and the texture is how these parts relate to each other -Density: how thick or thin thick: multiple layers of sound or very active sound thin: few to no layers, little action Four musical textures: 1. Monophonic -single part music; one sound -melody alone, no accompaniment -many voices in the same pitch are monophonic 2. Heterophonic -single part music performed by two or more people with slight variation - two or more versions of a melody performed simultaneously 3. Homophonic -multi-part music with one dominant part -melody with accompaniment 4. Polyphonic -multi-part music with no dominant part -all parts are equal


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