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WEEK 2 Art history survey 1 notes for 09/07/16 and 09/09/16

by: Tara Gardner

WEEK 2 Art history survey 1 notes for 09/07/16 and 09/09/16 ART 2350

Marketplace > University of North Texas > Art History > ART 2350 > WEEK 2 Art history survey 1 notes for 09 07 16 and 09 09 16
Tara Gardner
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About this Document

Notes covering mostly Stonehenge, Catal Huyuk, and Ziggurates
Art History Survey I
Mickey Abel
Class Notes
Ziggurat, Catalhuyuk, Stonehenge, Art, history, Art History, Survey, notes




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tara Gardner on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ART 2350 at University of North Texas taught by Mickey Abel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 289 views. For similar materials see Art History Survey I in Art History at University of North Texas.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
STONEHENGE  Shadows/shadow alignment help indicate human's relationship between earth and the heavens  Circles symbolic of life, death, and rebirth o Stonehenge is thought to be a large, spiritual, ritualized space  Historians still ponder how it was built. Possible theories include: o Rocking stones back and forth into place o Rolling stones on a system of logs  Both methods indicative of a mobile workforce MENHIR OF A WOMAN (2000BCE)  Re-visitation of the idea that whenever the hands are placed over the chest, it is indicative of death HOUSES AND BUILDINGS  Two different building methods: o post-and-lintel: two posted capped by a crossbeam (i.e. Stonehenge) o corbelling-bracing things against each other in a sort of arc-formation  decoration of a space NEWGRANGE  first decorative motifs (Celtic spiral)  deliberate rearranging of stones to create distinctive spaces  neighborhoods SKARA BREA  Neighborhood  begin to see the way people live by how the space is configured MESOPOTAMIA AND THE MIDDLE EAST  because it's a desert, water sources dictate where civilizations are located  The first real instances of ceramics (decorative clay) are small, handheld figurines CATAL HUYUK  Very fortified community o a singular glob of houses all connected together o built out of the land rather than on top of it  Makes use of natural material  Blends into the surroundings o doors located on the roofs o not necessarily an interaction between the outside world  Decorations indicative that certain spaces were places of worship o a predominance of bull heads  potentially a higher being  Strong relationship between man and beast o Many human skulls  the head is more important than the body o art on walls **Remember with architecture to consider the purpose of every room (educational/spiritual/governmental)** CATAL HUYUK  Fortified--fearful of the outside world o Fortification can be formed by walls, grouping of buildings, and location (on a mountain/island)  Animals have some larger purpose o Many examples of larger-than-life bulls o Indicative of a potential bull deity  The human dead have some kind of significance o Abundance of human skulls o Eyes are important  Thought of as a portal to the mind/intellect  Indicative that the culture had a concept of higher level thinking/cognition/human spirit ANU ZIGGURATES AND WHITE TEMPLE (URUK)  Ziggurat-an architectural form representational of a mountain  Mark the beginning of monumental architecture in the middle eastern region. Architectural on this scale means: o Someone probably commissioned it o Requires a lot of wealth/power/possibly materials from far away/mobile work force  Meeting point on top (higher plane) o Higher plane indicative of a higher power (deity, governmental power)  In many ancient cultures when one ascends to power they become deified o Requires system of stairs or ramps  The most direct route to the top is always reserved for the most important people  The anu ziggurat has three sets of stairs, one (center) for the royalty, one for the high priests, and one for high governmental officials o The more powerful you, the higher the level you get to ascend to  The shrine on the very top is reserved for a select few Ziggurat decorations  Cone mosaics-long, cone shaped pieces with colored, glazed ends are hammered into wet clay, creating a tiled pattern made of small circles  Many small rudimentary figures with very large, emphasized eyes  Tell Asmar votive statues-very well known, more complex figures o Purchased and brought to temples an offering to the gods, expecting something in return o All the statues share big eyes and are making the same gesture  Open eyes direct communicators with deities o Their hands are all clasping circular cups  Circles=endless/immortality/eternal life  Cups are vessels for water  WATER IS POWER in drier civilizations  Water can be symbolic of happiness, prosperity, and health (pleased gods)  Gudea (key figure)-a larger, much more complex votive figure from a much later date o Written word actually gives us his exact purpose, allowing us to infer the purpose of similar, earlier statues o 5ft tall, located outside a temple as a stand in for an actual priest, for the people who were not allowed to enter the ziggurat


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