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IST-340-940 - Ethics and Legal Issues in IT WEEK 1 NOTES

by: Jacob Notetaker

IST-340-940 - Ethics and Legal Issues in IT WEEK 1 NOTES ISAT-316-940

Marketplace > Southern Illinois University Carbondale > Information technology > ISAT-316-940 > IST 340 940 Ethics and Legal Issues in IT WEEK 1 NOTES
Jacob Notetaker

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About this Document

These are the notes covered in class and book for week one.
Information Assurance I
Dr. Leslie Fife
Class Notes
IT, information, Technologies, Technology, Computer, ethics
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacob Notetaker on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ISAT-316-940 at Southern Illinois University Carbondale taught by Dr. Leslie Fife in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Information Assurance I in Information technology at Southern Illinois University Carbondale.

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Date Created: 09/09/16
Ethics and Legal Issues in IT Week 1 Notes Thursday, September 8, 2016 2:01 AM Book Notes for "Ethics and Technology" by Herman T. Tavani Week 1 Chapter 1: Introduction to Cyberethics: Concepts, Perspectives, and Methodological Frameworks Scenario 1-1: A Fatal Cyberbullying Incident on Myspace • 13 year old names Megan Meier has an account on Myspace. • Megan encounters user named Evan who claims to be male and 16 and begins friendly relationship with him. • Relationship turns romantic then quickly sour. • Evan begins tarnishing reputation of Megan by publicly making derogatory insults on Myspace about her. • This sent Megan into a downward spiral and she eventually commits suicide out of anguish. • Evan turns out to be a mother of a former friend of Megan's named Lori Drew who did it out of revenge. Scenario 1-2: Contesting on the Ownership of a Twitter Account • Noah Kravitz gets employed by mobile media company PhoneDog Media • Kravitz under the company created a blog on Twitter. • This Twitter account hits over 17,000 followers and became an important asset of the company. • Kravitz leaves the company in 2010 but wanted to keep the Twitter blog with its followers. • Company has no initial problem with the idea until 2011 when PhoneDog argued that it is a company asset. • Company also argues that a substantial amount of money was invested in the blog and therefore was their property. • PhoneDog eventually sues Kravitz for $40,000 in damages. Scenario 1-3: • Jessica Cutler is a former staff assistant to a US Senator. • She authored and online diary under the name "The Washingtonienne". • The diary harbored contents deemed confidential to the US Sentator's party. • These contents contained private relationships and affairs between herself and important political figures although their real names were not published. • She was terminated upon it being published by the media. • However she was offered a book contract with a major publisher. • She was then sued by one of the men implicated in the diary. What should I take away from these scenarios? • These are important scenarios that convey concepts of ethics and morality across a technological medium. • These concepts are related to anonymity pseudonymity, deception, crime, legal liability, and moral responsibility. • The point of telling these scenarios is to cause the reader to question the validity of morality in the ethics of them. • Because these are moral issues that occur over a technological medium do the laws and code of human ethics still apply to the same extent? 1.1 Defining Key Terms: Cyberethics and Cybertechnology The definition of Cyberethics is the study of moral, legal, and social issues involving cybertechnology. • Cyberethics evaluates social policies and laws that have been framed as a result of current issues pertaining to technology. • Cyberethics examins the impact of cybertechnologyon our social, moral, and legal systems. 1.1.1 - What is Cybertechnology? The definition of Cybertechnologyis the wide range of computing and communicationdevices. • Computers,Phones, Tablets, Smart Devices,etc.. 1.1.2 - Why the Term Cyberethics? • The alternative terms "InformationEthics" or "Internet Ethics" are also used in this area of study as a means of examining the ethics of technology use. • For our purposes and studies, Cyberethics is a more accurate term. 1.2 The Cybertethics Evolution: Four Developmental Phases in Cybertechnology • The overall evolution of cybertechnologyhas changed the definition of cyberethics. • Prior to WW2, the term computer was defined as a person who calculates numbers. • Following WW2, this term changed in meaning to a machine that calculates numbers and information. • It is important to understand the definitions of these relative terms to also understand the evolutionof the study of Cyberethics. Phase 1 (1950sand 1960s) • Phase includes huge mainframe computerssuch as ENIAC existing as standalone machines (unconnected). • Ethical and social issues of this era included: ○ Computers existing as "giant brains" and beginning stages of "artificial intelligence" ○ What does it mean to be human? ○ Self-awareness. ○ Citizens feared the idea of "Big Brother", the concept that the federal governmentholds massive amounts of informationabout their citizens. ○ Concerns of strong centralized government. Phase 2 (1970sand 1980s) • Phase includes the convergence of computing machines to the commercialsector thus creating an era of computer communicationnetworks. • Ethical and social issues of this era included: ○ Concerns of personal privacy, intellectual property, and computer crime. ○ Not only was there a concern for personal information collection,but now people became aware of the ability to share this information over large networks. ○ People now feared others "breaking in" to these databases and stealing said information. Phase 3 (1990-Present) • Phase includes the access to and availability of the internet to the general public due to the phenomenal growth of the world wide web in the 90s. • Ethical and social issues of this era included: ○ Issues of free speech, anonymity,jurisdiction, and trust have been a major dispute of this phase. ○ Should internet users be able to post whatever they want on public sites? ○ Does the law enforcementhave jurisdiction to hunt crime over the web? ○ Should we continue to think of computers merely as "devices" and "machines" or have they becomemuch more than that? Phase 4 (Present-Future) • Unprecedented level of technologyconvergence. • Ethical and social issues of this era include: ○ Convergenceto biotechnology. Robots as artificial electronic agents. ○ ○ Nanotechnologyand ambient intelligence. 1.3 Are Cyberethics Issues Unique Ethical Issues? • Considering the scenarios at the beginning of the chapter, are these moral issues really anything new? • Is the fact that they were done across cyber technology even relevant? • Alternativelyone may argue that crime is done with more ease over technology. • Scope and scale now effect the magnitude of the moral issue at times. • Walter Maner, is one who argues for the idea that computer use certainly has created new issues. 1.3.1 - Distinguishing between Unique TechnologicalFeatures and Unique Ethical Issues. 1.3.2 - An Alternative Strategy for Analyzing the Debate about Uniqueness • Controversiesconcerning technology are legitimate. • James Moordemonstratesthat technology enhances human capability and therefore generate "policy vacuums" since there was no previous policy on the issues prior to technology. • A solution to this matter may include eliminating conceptual confusions then establishing coherent policies. 1.4 Cyberethics as a Branch of Applied Ethics: Three Distinct Perspectives • Cyberethics can be understood as a field of applied ethics. 1.4.1 - Perspective#1: Cyberethics as a Field of ProfessionalEthics 1.4.1 - Perspective#1: Cyberethics as a Field of ProfessionalEthics • According to professional ethics, the field can be defined as identifying and analyzing issues of ethical responsibility for computer and informationtechnology for professionals. • By seeing Cyberethics in the same realm of other professional ethics, you may draw analogies from other areas of ethics as well. • "The only way to make sense of ‘Computer Ethics’ is to narrow its focus to those actions that are within the control of the individual moral computerprofessional.14 [Italics Gotterbarn] " • Principal focus should be on moral responsibility and not on moral and social implications. • ProfessionalEthics and the Computer Science Practitioner ○ Some believe Gotterbarn's conception is too narrow because the concept model does not keep up with the ever growing field of technology. ○ A broader model is needed. ○ Despite this many still believe Gotterbarn's concept is the most plausible. • Applying the ProfessionalEthics Model to Specific Scenarios. ○ Can professional ethics models be used to analyze scenarios that only effect computer professionals INDIRECTLY? 1.4.2 - Perspective#2: Cyberethics as a Field of Philosophical Ethics. • How is philosophical ethics different from professional ethics? • Some philosophical tools are used to analyze issues in professional ethics but are still arbitrary at face value. • Professionalethics are ethics related to the responsibility and morals of a professional while philosophical tackle broader concerns outside of just the professional field. 1.4.3 - Perspective#3: Cyberethics as a Field of Sociological/DescriptiveEthics • Often used by sociologistsand social scientists. • Describing the impact of the scenario and then applying ethics to it. Summary Table: 1.5 A Comprehensive Cyberethics Methodology. • A DisclosiveMethod for CyberEthics ○ Removethe morally transparent features and break the controversydown from there to discover the unique ethic at hand. • An Interdisciplinary and MultilevelMethod for Analyzing Cyberethics Issues ○ Handles three levels:  Disclosure level - disclose features that have no moral import  Disclosure level - disclose features that have no moral import  Theoreticallevel - test the newly disclosed features against standard ethical theories  Application level - apply standard or newly revised ethical theories to the issues 1.6 A Comprehensive Strategy for Approaching Cyberethics Issues • The following methodologicalscheme is intended to assist one in identifying and analyzing cyberethics issues in the book. ○ Identify a practice involving cybertechnologythat is controversial. ○ Analyze the ethical issue by clarifying concepts and situating it in a context. ○ Deliberate the ethical issue by applying an ethical theory and justifying the position reached.


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