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Introduction to Biology Week 3

by: Elizabeth Schnarr

Introduction to Biology Week 3 BIOL 107-06

Marketplace > Truman State University > Biology > BIOL 107-06 > Introduction to Biology Week 3
Elizabeth Schnarr
Truman State

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About this Document

These notes cover Carbohydrates, specifically Polysaccharides, Lipids, and Proteins in detail. I hope these notes help you.
Introduction to Biology I
Daniela Ostrowski
Class Notes
Bio, Biology, Chemistry, biochem, biochemistry, Chem, Lipids, Fats, polysaccharides, Proteins, carbs, Carbohydrates
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Schnarr on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 107-06 at Truman State University taught by Daniela Ostrowski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology I in Biology at Truman State University.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
Week 2: 9/6­9/12  Biology  Lecture 3 cont: Biochemistry    Carbohydrates: Polysaccharides  ● Many monosaccharides bonded together  ● Function as storage molecule or structural component  ● Starch consists entirely of α­glycosidic linkage    Glycogen  ● Stored in the liver and muscles  ● Polymer of glucose identical to starch, but polymer structure highly branched    Cellulose  ● Major component of cell wall in plants  ● Linear molecule with hydrogen bonds between parallel strands  ● Same monomer of glucose, but we don’t have the enzyme to break that bond    Chitin  ● Found in cell walls of fungi, some protists, and in exoskeletons of insects and  crustaceans     Lipids  ● Carbon­containing compounds that are nonpolar and hydrophobic  ● 3 types of lipids: fats, phospholipids, and steroids  ● Saturated: single bonds between carbons  ● Unsaturated: double bonds between carbons   ● Fluidity depends on length and saturation of the hydrocarbon chains    Fats  ● Fats are composed of 3 fatty acids that are linked to a 3 carbon molecule called  glycerol  ● Ester bond: glycerol bonds with 3 fatty acid tails  ● Trans fats­ liquid unsaturated fats that are hydrogenated        Week 2: 9/6­9/12  Phospholipids  ● Phospholipids consist of a glycerol that is linked to a phosphate group and two  hydrocarbon chains  ● It’s amphiphatic (this means it contains both hydrophilic and hydrophobic  regions)    Steroids  ● Carbon skeleton contains 4 fused rings  ● Anabolic steroids­ synthetic version of testosterone     Proteins  ● Nearly every dynamic function in your body depends on proteins  ● They..  1. Catalyze chemical reactions  2. Transports proteins  3. Attack and destroy viruses and bacteria  4. Function as receptor proteins: carry and receive signals for cell to cell  5. Structural function: motor proteins and contractile elements help with  movement  6. Storage: proteins are made of amino acids that help with embryo  development  ● Monomer: amino acids    Amino Acids      ● In solution, amino group attracts protons and carboxyl group loses protons  R­group: 20 different kinds, either polar or nonpolar  ● Essential amino acids: acids that can’t be produced by your body  ● Monomer: amino acids  Week 2: 9/6­9/12  ● Condensation (dehydration) reaction links the carboxyl group of one amino acid  to the amino group of the next amino acid as a water molecule is removed  ● Hydrolysis: breaks polymer apart by adding water molecule   ● Peptide bond­ carboxyl group of an amino acid and an amino group of another  ● Proteins vary in shape and size    Primary structure   ● Sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chain  ● R­groups on a polypeptide affect molecule’s properties and function     Secondary Structure  ● Shape of amino acid chains (due to H­bonding)    Tertiary Structure  ● 3D shape due to bonding between the secondary structures  ● Can bond to each other by…  1. Hydrogen bonds  2. Hydrophobic interactions  3. Van der Waals interactions  4. Covalent bonds  5. Ionic bonds    Quaternary Structure  ● Arrangement of polypeptide chains if there are 2 or more chains  ● Proteins fold spontaneously, chaperones help with folding         


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