Introduction to Biology Week 3
Introduction to Biology Week 3 BIOL 107-06
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Schnarr on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 107-06 at Truman State University taught by Daniela Ostrowski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology I in Biology at Truman State University.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Week 2: 9/69/12 Biology Lecture 3 cont: Biochemistry Carbohydrates: Polysaccharides ● Many monosaccharides bonded together ● Function as storage molecule or structural component ● Starch consists entirely of αglycosidic linkage Glycogen ● Stored in the liver and muscles ● Polymer of glucose identical to starch, but polymer structure highly branched Cellulose ● Major component of cell wall in plants ● Linear molecule with hydrogen bonds between parallel strands ● Same monomer of glucose, but we don’t have the enzyme to break that bond Chitin ● Found in cell walls of fungi, some protists, and in exoskeletons of insects and crustaceans Lipids ● Carboncontaining compounds that are nonpolar and hydrophobic ● 3 types of lipids: fats, phospholipids, and steroids ● Saturated: single bonds between carbons ● Unsaturated: double bonds between carbons ● Fluidity depends on length and saturation of the hydrocarbon chains Fats ● Fats are composed of 3 fatty acids that are linked to a 3 carbon molecule called glycerol ● Ester bond: glycerol bonds with 3 fatty acid tails ● Trans fats liquid unsaturated fats that are hydrogenated Week 2: 9/69/12 Phospholipids ● Phospholipids consist of a glycerol that is linked to a phosphate group and two hydrocarbon chains ● It’s amphiphatic (this means it contains both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions) Steroids ● Carbon skeleton contains 4 fused rings ● Anabolic steroids synthetic version of testosterone Proteins ● Nearly every dynamic function in your body depends on proteins ● They.. 1. Catalyze chemical reactions 2. Transports proteins 3. Attack and destroy viruses and bacteria 4. Function as receptor proteins: carry and receive signals for cell to cell 5. Structural function: motor proteins and contractile elements help with movement 6. Storage: proteins are made of amino acids that help with embryo development ● Monomer: amino acids Amino Acids ● In solution, amino group attracts protons and carboxyl group loses protons Rgroup: 20 different kinds, either polar or nonpolar ● Essential amino acids: acids that can’t be produced by your body ● Monomer: amino acids Week 2: 9/69/12 ● Condensation (dehydration) reaction links the carboxyl group of one amino acid to the amino group of the next amino acid as a water molecule is removed ● Hydrolysis: breaks polymer apart by adding water molecule ● Peptide bond carboxyl group of an amino acid and an amino group of another ● Proteins vary in shape and size Primary structure ● Sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chain ● Rgroups on a polypeptide affect molecule’s properties and function Secondary Structure ● Shape of amino acid chains (due to Hbonding) Tertiary Structure ● 3D shape due to bonding between the secondary structures ● Can bond to each other by… 1. Hydrogen bonds 2. Hydrophobic interactions 3. Van der Waals interactions 4. Covalent bonds 5. Ionic bonds Quaternary Structure ● Arrangement of polypeptide chains if there are 2 or more chains ● Proteins fold spontaneously, chaperones help with folding
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