Week 3 Notes for ANEQ 346
Week 3 Notes for ANEQ 346 ANEQ 346
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alia Coughlan on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANEQ 346 at Colorado State University taught by Dr Hess in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Equine Disease in Equine Science at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Week 3 Notes for ANEQ 346 Equine Disease Management 9/05 Labor Day – No Class 9/07 Upper Digestive Tract Cont. Gastric Ulcers in Adult Horses Signs: Reduced appetite Weight Loss Reoccurring colic Loose feces *There may be no clinical signs Impact of Gastric Ulcers Can disrupt training Can result in poor body condition Can cause colic Can have severe complications especially if ulcers rupture Treatments for Gastric Ulcers Eliminate clinical signs & promote healing Prevent complications/recurrence Medicines for Gastric Ulcers Neutralizing agents such as antacids Antisecretory agents Histamine H2 Inhibits acid secretion Prostaglandin analog Acid pump inhibitors Management Modifications Moderate training Diet changes Limit fasting (cheapest way) Reduce grain/concentrates Limit stressful events Trailering Overcrowding Gastroduodenal Ulcers in Foals Relatively common Signs: Anorexia Ptyalism = too much saliva Bruxism = chewing w/o food Colic Diarrhea *Foal may die suddenly Impact of Ulcers on Foals Gastric outflow obstruction Chronic ulceration Rupture Why Does it Happen in Foals? Illness Stress Hypoxia Prolonged time between feedings Small meal size Lecture 6 Small Intestine Small Intestine Overview 1522 meters long 710 cm diameter 3 Parts: Duodenum (3ft) Jejunum Ileum Feed passes in about 1 ½ Pancreas enzymes are released from duodenum Amylase, tripsin, lipase Neutral pH Water is secreted into it to increase absorption *Bile = secreted in a continuous pattern of minerals and bicarbonate Possible Intestinal Problems Distension Necrosis Toxin absorption *All of these reduce circulating blood volume and the blood supply to the gut Strangulation of the Small Intestine (Strangulating Obstruction) Often fatal Happens because of a blood flow and ingesta blockage Other common causes/obstructions that fall under Strangulation Obstruction: Lipoma Entrapments within parts of the intestine Volvulus Gas Formation Inguinal Hernia Intussusception Irritation to mucosa due to parasites Clinical Signs of a Strangulation Obstruction Persistent signs of colic Depressed Toxemia increased capillary refill time increased HR (6080 BPM) Gastric Reflex Color Yellowish Simple Obstructions Due to parasites in the small intestine Ileal Impaction (ex) association with high fibercured hay tapeworm infestation Signs: Distention of bowel wall Painful Cardiovascular Shock Dehydration Diagnosis Nasogastric tube Rectal exam Abdominal Ultrasound *Anterior Enteritis = Inflammation of the proximal part of the small intestine 9/09 Lecture 7 Hindgut Problems Hindgut Anatomy Large Intestine Cecum Large Colon (ascending) Small Colon (descending) Rectum Cecum Blind ended fermentation vat Digests fibers 0.9 – 1.2 meters long 25 – 30 L Large Colon 3 – 3.7 meters long Holds 50 50 L Comprised of: Right ventral colon Left ventral colon Right dorsal colon Light dorsal colon Flexures Small Colon 3 meters long Holds 1819 L Has 2 bands Forms fecal matter Rectum Anus Tympany Swelling of the abdomen with either air or gas Cecum Rapid gas formation Gas forms because of the high amount of starch Makes it difficult to breathe *Horses don’t ferment starch well Lack of motility Secondary to large colon Colon Rapid gas formation Distention of whole abdomen Especially right side Ileus No motility Treatment: Pain Relief Decompression Prevent Rupture Impaction Simple obstruction Where does it happen? Cecum Transverse Colon Pelvic Flexure Risk Factors: Dehydration High fiber feed Cold weather Amitraz Causes paralysis (DO NOT USE) Clinical Exams: Colic Mild to moderate pain Hard fecal matter Anorexia Rectal Exam Helps in diagnosis Treatments: Lots of Fluids!!!!! Orally or IV Oral is better Mineral Oil Passes around impaction but does not pass through it Diocytl Sodium Sulfosuccinate Laxative Surgery Sand Impaction Happens when horses live in sandy areas and ingest sand while eating Signs: Similar to impaction Sand in feces Treatments: Mineral Oil Magnesium Sulfate Metamucilose Surgery Enteroliths Mineral concentrations found in the colon Magnesium, ammonium, phosphate salts Signs: Reoccurring colic Treatment: Surgery
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