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Experimental Psychology Notes Week 3

by: Elizabeth Schnarr

Experimental Psychology Notes Week 3 PSYC 266 - 04

Marketplace > Truman State University > Psychology > PSYC 266 - 04 > Experimental Psychology Notes Week 3
Elizabeth Schnarr
Truman State

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About this Document

These notes cover the two main lectures discussed this week in class. They include operational definitions, Reliability, and Validity. The second lecture includes the topics Physical Variables, Soc...
Experimental Psychology
Ashley Ramsey
Class Notes
psych, Psychology, extraneous, variables, Reliability, validity, experimental
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Schnarr on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 266 - 04 at Truman State University taught by Ashley Ramsey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Experimental Psychology in Psychology at Truman State University.

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Date Created: 09/09/16
Week 3: 9/5­9/11  Experimental Psychology  Operational Definitions, Reliability, and Validity      Operational Definitions  ● An operational definition specifies the exact meaning of a variable in an  experiment   ● Experimental operational definition specifies the exact procedure for creating  values of the ​ .V  ● Measured operational definition specifies the exact procedure for measuring the  D.V    Reliability   ● Reliability refers to the ​consistency​ of experimental operational definitions and  measured operational definitions   ● Interrater reliability: the degree to which observers ​agree in their measurement​ of  the behavior (Ex: how much graders agree on scoring an essay)  ● Test­retest reliability: the degree to which a ​person's scores are consistent  across two or more administrations of a measurement procedure (Ex: Highly  correlated scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale­Revised when it is  administered twice, 2 weeks apart)  ● Interitem Reliability: measures the degree to which different parts of an  instrument that are designed to measure the same variable achieve consistent  results ​(looking at the same thing)    Validity  ● Means if ​what’s intended to be measured is what’s being measured  ● Face Validity: the degree to which the validity of a manipulation or measurement  technique is self­evident ​(obvious choice)  ● Content Validity: how accurately a measurement procedure ​samples the content  of the dependent variable (Ex: an exam over chapters 1­4 that only contains  questions about chapter 2 has poor content validity)  ● Construct Validity: how accurately an operational definition represents a  phenomenon that is not directly measurable​ (Ex: memory tasks)  ● Predictive Validity: how accurately a measurement procedure ​predicts​ future  performance  Week 3: 9/5­9/11  ● Concurrent Validity: degree to which ​scores on the measuring instrument  correlate with another​ known standard for measuring the variable being studied  (Ex: Compare tests results on a measure of anxiety to evaluations by a clinician)  ● Internal Validity: degree to which changes in the dependent variable across  treatment conditions were ​due to the I.V  ● External Validity: degree to which research findings can be generalized to ​other  settings and individuals            Experimental Psychology  Controlling Extraneous Variables    Physical Variables  ● Physical variables are aspects of the testing situation that ​need to be controlled  ● Elimination ​completely removes extraneous physical variables​ from the  experimental situation (Ex: soundproofing a room)  ● Constancy of conditions controls extraneous physical variables by​ keeping all  aspects of the treatment conditions identical​, except for the independent variable  (Ex: testing all subjects at the same time of day)  ● Balancing controls extraneous physical variables by ​equally distributing their  effects across treatment conditions​ (Ex: running half the subjects in the morning,  and the other half in the afternoon)  ● Order:   1. Eliminate extraneous variables whenever possible   2. Keep conditions constant where elimination is not possible   3. Balance the effects of extraneous variables when constancy of conditions is  not possible    Social Variables  ● Social variables are aspects of the ​relationships between subjects and  experimenters that can influence experimental results  ● Demand characteristics are cues within the experimental situation that demand  or elicit specific participant responses (Ex: students cue professors that time is  up by packing up backpacks)  Week 3: 9/5­9/11  ● Demand characteristics can confound internal validity if they vary across  experimental conditions   ● Subjects may act to confirm what they think is the experimental hypothesis  ● In a single­blind experiment, subjects are not told their treatment condition  ● Placebo effect is when a subject ​receives an inert treatment and improves  because of positive expectancies  ● Cover story is a false plausible explanation of the experimental procedures to  disguise the research hypothesis from the subjects  ● Experimenter bias is any behavior by the ​experimenter that can confound the  experiment  ● Rosenthal effect is the phenomenon in which ​experimenters treat subjects  differently​ based on their expectations and their resulting actions influence  subject performance and confound results  ● Double­blind experiments control both ​demand characteristics and experimenter  bias    Personality Variables  ● When experimenters are warm and friendly, subjects learn more, talk more, earn  better test scores, and are eager to please  ● Treat “experimenter” as an ​independent variable​ in statistical analysis  ● Volunteers are more sociable, score higher in social desirability, hold more liberal  social and political attitudes, are less authoritarian, and score higher on  intelligence tests than nonvolunteers     


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