PY 352 Ch. 9
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gretchen Pierce on Friday March 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 11505 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Andre Souza in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 117 views.
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Date Created: 03/27/15
Chapter 9 Middle Childhood Biology and Cognition 1 Body Growth a In middle childhood 611ish children add about 23 inches and 5 pounds a year b Girls are shorter and lighter than boys between 68 but by age 9 everything is reverse Girls have more body fat and boys have more muscle During middle childhood bones of the body lengthen and broaden e Between ages 6 and 12 all 20 primary teeth fall out and become permanent teeth f Face lengthens and mouth widens an 2 Health Issues a Effects of good nutrition and rapid development of the body s immune system protect schoolage children from disease b Poverty continues to be a predictor of ill health during school years c Nutrition i School age children need a well balanced diet to provide energy for learning and physical activity ii Malnutrition usually leads to physical and mental damage 3 Overweight and Obesity a Today 32 children are overweight and 17 are obese b Obesity is more than 20 increase over healthy weight based on the BMI body mass index c Overweight rate increase over Western countries d Overweight increases with age and 70 of affected kids become overweight adults 4 Causes of Obesity a Overweight children tend to have overweight parents b Identical twins are likely to share disorder but heredity only accounts for tendency to become overweight c Low SES in industrialized nations ethnic minorities likely to be obese i Family stress ii Lack of knowledge iii High fat good low cost food d Parents fail to help children regulate food intake e Obese children are more responsive to external stimuli associated with food and less responsive to internal hunger cues f Insufficient sleep goes with weight gain Eating outside of home increases children food consumption and risk to gain weight h Psychological consequences of obesity i Negatively stereotyped and socially isolated in school ii Report more emotional social and school difficulties 5 Motor Development a Gross Motor Development i Running jumping and ball skills are more refined ii Motor skills re ect gains in exibility balance and agility iii Information processing contributes to motor performance iv Steady gains in reaction time b Fine Motor Development i Improves over school years ii Gains in writing and drawing 6 Sex Differences a Sex differences in motor skills become more pronounced b Girls better at fine motor skills and handwriting Also better at balance and agility c Boys better at gross motor skills d Boys advantage to muscle mass e Games with rules i Do not really care about rules as long as you are doing something ii Children spend less time engaged in informal play 7 Cognitive Development a Piaget s concrete operational stage extends from 7 to 11 years b Compared with early childhood thought is far more logical exible and organized c Children have the ability to pass conservation tasks which provides clear evidence of operations mental actions that obey logical rules d They also demonstrate reversibility the ability to think through a series of steps and then mentally reverse direction returning to the starting point e Concrete operational children are capable of seriation the ability to order items along a quantitative dimension such as length or weight f They can also seriate mentally an ability called transitive inference 8 Information Processing a Working memory capacity continues to increase in middle childhood b They observed improved performance on working memory tasks is supported by brain development and working memory benefits from enhanced speed of thinking c Time needed to process information declines rapidly between ages 6 and 12 d Children from low SES families are especially likely to score low on workingmemory tasks e During the school years executive function undergoes its most energetic period of development Children handle increasingly difficult tasks that require the integration of working memory inhibition planning exible use of strategies and selfcorrection of behavior In middle childhood attention becomes more selective adaptable and planful Selective attention improves sharply between ages 6 and 10 with gains continuing throughout adolescence Older children are between at exibly adapting their attention to task requirements Planning improves greatly in middle childhood Memory strategies deliberate mental activities we use to store and retain information get better at middle childhood During middle childhood children s longterm knowledge base grows larger and becomes organized into increasingly elaborate hierarchically structured networks 9 Language Development a b Schoolage children develop language awareness which supports many complex language skills During the elementary school years vocabulary increases fourfold growing at a faster rate than in early childhood Children continue to benefit from conversation with more expert speakers and reading contributes enormously to vocabulary growth Schoolage children think about and use words more precisely than preschoolers As schoolage children learn to grasp multiple meanings of words they develop an understanding of metaphors and of riddles and puns Mastery of complex grammatical constructions also improves For example Englishspeaking children use the passive voice more frequently Improvements in pragmatics the communicative side of language occur as children s conversational strategies becomes more refined Children s narratives increase in organization detail and expressiveness gradually lengthening into a classic form in which events build to a high point and then resolve Many children grow up bilingual learning two or more languages An estimated 20 of US children 10 million speak a language other than English at home Children can become bilingual either by acquiring both languages at the same time in early childhood or by learning a second language after mastering the first A sensitive period for secondlanguage development exists Children who are uent in 2 languages outperform others on tests selective attention analytical reasoning and concept formation
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