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Comm 107 Week 2 Ch. 3 Notes

by: Colin Fields

Comm 107 Week 2 Ch. 3 Notes Comm107

Colin Fields

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Lecture and chapter 3 notes Nonverbal Communication
Oral Communication: Principles and Practices
Mr. Volker
Class Notes
Nonverbal Communication
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Colin Fields on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Comm107 at University of Maryland taught by Mr. Volker in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Oral Communication: Principles and Practices in Department of Communication at University of Maryland.

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Date Created: 09/09/16
Comm 107 Notes Week 2 Ch. 3 Nonverbal Communication All those messages that people exchange beyond words themselves 1. Sources of Nonverbal Signs a. Innate neurological programs and common to a culture or family b. Neurological Programs i. Innate neurological programs: automatic nonverbal reactions with which we are born ii. Driven by needs and survival instincts iii. Common facial expressions 1. Sadness 2. Crying 3. Smiling 4. Laughing 5. Pouting 6. Fear 7. Anger c. Cultural and Intercultural Behavior i. Reflective of the culture from which these signs were learned ii. Action Chain: a behavioral sequence involving two or more organisms involving standard steps to reach a goal 1. Must be restarted if broken at any point iii. Naturally perceive other peoples’ cultural behaviors as though they were our own, potentially confusing meaning 2. Emotional Influences on Nonverbal Communication a. Upset = tightness/want for space b. Happy = loose/inviting c. Intoxication and shock drastically change nonverbal communication 3. Verbal and Nonverbal Relationships a. Substituting relationship i. Replacing a verbal response with a gestural or other nonverbal one b. Complementing relationship i. Nonverbal message accompanies and aggress with the verbal message c. Conflicting relationship i. Nonverbal and verbal messages are in contrast to one another d. Accenting Relationship i. Nonverbals stress the verbal message 4. Categories of Nonverbal Communication a. Kinesics: Body Communication i. Study of communication through the body and its movements ii. Face 1. Facsics – how the face communicates a. Convey emotional state and actions desired to be taken b. Facial expressions can often go unperceived iii. Eyes 1. Ocalics – how the eyes communicate a. Hard to disguise or hid from people of the same culture b. Can convey nervousness c. Big pupils are interested, reverse is true iv. Movement 1. Gestics – how movements of the body communicate a. Done to assist with thinking and forming words b. Can display interest and intent c. There are some gestures that are not accompanied by speech v. Emblems 1. Nonverbal acts that have a direct verbal translation consisting of a few words a. Sign language 2. Culture specific 3. Illustrators: kinesic acts the accompany speech that aid in description 4. Affect display: facial gestures that show emotions and feelings 5. Regulators: nonverbal acts that control the back and forth nature of speaking 6. Adaptors: accompany boredom, show internal feelings, or regulate internal feelings vi. Touch 1. Haptics – how touch is used to communicate 2. Deepest and most intimate communication 3. Permission to touch usually follows an action chain vii. Posture, Walk, Stance 1. Body Synchrony a. Culturally patterned b. Conveys status, mood, ethic affiliation, self-perception viii. Artifacts 1. Things people wear or adorn walls with that convey messages 2. Clothing ix. Physical Characteristics 1. Prejudice against unattractive people 2. Culturally diverse 5. Proxemics a. How people interact based on the space around them i. Personal space is culturally dependent b. Culture an Space i. Can conflict very much if one assumes others have the same regard for space ii. Varies base don expression of emotional state c. Space Distances i. Intimate distance – used for most private activities 1. Up to 18 inches ii. Personal distance – how close people we are currently involved with should be in for us to feel comfortable 1. 18 inches to 4 feet iii. Social distance – casual social exchanges and business transactions 1. 4 to 12 feet iv. Public distance – Distance at which someone interacts with a group in a speaker listener manner 1. Over 12, usually over 25 feet d. Small Group Ecology i. Physical placement of members of a small group ii. Smaller and tighter distances increase amount of interaction and openness 6. Vocal Cues as Communication a. Paralanguage b. Based on the qualities of what is said not its verbal meaning c. Higher pitched and quicker when nervous or uncomfortable d. Lower pitched and slower when comfortable or intimate e. Sarcasm f. Can convey confidence and influence others’ perceptions 7. Time as Communication a. Chronemics b. Circular time i. No pressure to do things as time flows in a cycle ii. Usually in societies with a lack of fear of death c. Linear time i. Focused on future and doing things ii. Punctuality is important d. Culture based 8. Smell as Communication a. Olfactics b. Can have positive and negative effects c. Very selective d. Smell blindness i. Can’t detect smells ii. All affects taste perception e. Smell adaptation i. Desensitization f. Smell overload i. One powerful or many smells overpower someone g. Smell discrimination i. Ability to identify things by smell 9. Aesthetics as Communication a. Communication through color or music b. Can be stressful or relaxing 10. Taste as Communication a. Gustorics – how taste communicates b. Associative response (this tastes good so the person who gave it to me is good) c. People can acquire a taste for things 11. Using Nonverbal Communication a. Training to recognize patterns of behavior b. Should be used to convey precise meanings unambiguously to remain relevant


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