Intro and Data Sources
Intro and Data Sources CMLGY 3301 31
Popular in Women and Crime
Popular in CRIMINOLOGY
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gina on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CMLGY 3301 31 at Fairleigh Dickinson University taught by Megan Sacks in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Women and Crime in CRIMINOLOGY at Fairleigh Dickinson University.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
INTRODUCTION The study of women and crime is relatively new The field of criminology was developed in the early 1900s It first started in Chicago by Sociologists They only studied men to being with, women only began to be studied in the 1970s o This started because of the second wave of feminism The first wave of feminism was in the 1920s, and resulted in women’s right to vote o The second wave was fighting for the right to work To obtain the right to work the same job as men and receive the same pay as men o They were also fighting for reproductive rights o 1972 – Roe v Wade gave women the right to have abortions legally o Prisoners were obtaining rights: o 1960s and 1970s were known as the Due process revolution o Due process: your constitutional rights to be processed under the law There are more women working in the criminal justice system, more visible crime, there was a lot of aggression during this time o Every time there is a fight for equality there is a backlash from people who don’t believe in this progression With social progress comes what can be viewed as deviant behavior o The LGBTQ+ community were also on the rise and looking for equal rights There was a type of chivalry towards women where they wouldn’t be arrested as often and tried as often as men o This chivalry disappeared when women began demanding equal rights ▯ DATA SOURCES UCR: Uniform Crime Report Crimes reported to the police Arrests 97% of Police department participates Run by the FBI o Shown us that female offending increased by 12% from 1999 to 2009 o Along with this, the overall crime rate is going down consistently, with the exception of female offenders The homicide rate has escalated, most likely due to the most recent racial tensions o An alternate explanation for this rise in female crime rate is the next wave of feminism: they’re being arrested and prosecuted much more than they have in recent years o It’s more about how we treat women, rather than women changing over time o An increase in of prosecution in terms of prostitution o Many women are in jail for prostitution, theft, and drugs Women are serving time for drugs due to their partner or spouse being involved in dealing drugs, rather than they themselves being the one selling the drugs They wind up making phone calls from their houses, stashing drugs in their houses, and driving the men around to make the deals Prior to the 1980s/1990s, that wouldn’t result in the women being sent to jail ***Mandatory punishment laws set in place in the 1980s/1990s for drug crimes substantially increased the prosecution and punishment for women involved in drug crimes*** (Minimum of 10 years for all drug crimes) o Also a major increase in female prosecution for domestic cases Pre 1970s nobody was arrested for domestic violence cases, along with the second wave of feminism came mandatory arrest if there is an evidence of domestic violence Due to men’s demand for equal treatment, most departments will arrest both the victim and the abuser when a domestic violence case is reported NCVS: National Crime Victimization Survey of households asking about how they have been victimized Run by the FBI and the Census Bureau o Sample 38k households across the US to represent the population Only surveys the traditional household Only surveys victims over the age of 12 (excludes all cases of childhood sexual assault) ▯ These two NEVER have the same numbers, but we can tell they’re on track because they follow the same trends (this shows there is some accuracy to both) ▯ ***Both systematically under report crime*** Many people will not want to admit to being victimized Does not report crimes in nursing homes, apartment complexes, college campuses, homeless population, children under 12 Police departments fudge the numbers, both over reporting and under reporting Both under report female victimization SUBSTANCIALLY Domestic violence is definitely under reported for fear of backlash Rape and sexual assault are extremely under reported o Only 40% of sexual assaults are reported o There’s shame and a stigma against these victims o There’s also the fear of re victimization during the trial o Women are also taught that this is almost the norm o Many women believe that they won’t be believed if they report the rape or assault o There is a trend of women not getting justice so many believe they won’t get justice if they report it SRD: Self Report Data
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