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Intro and Data Sources

by: Gina

Intro and Data Sources CMLGY 3301 31


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About this Document

These notes cover the introduction to the Women and Crime course, as well as notes on how data on crimes is gathered.
Women and Crime
Megan Sacks
Class Notes
criminology, Women's Studies
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gina on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CMLGY 3301 31 at Fairleigh Dickinson University taught by Megan Sacks in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Women and Crime in CRIMINOLOGY at Fairleigh Dickinson University.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
INTRODUCTION   The study of women and crime is relatively new  The field of criminology was developed in the early 1900s  It first started in Chicago by Sociologists  They only studied men to being with, women only began to be studied in the 1970s o This started because of the second wave of feminism   The first wave of feminism was in the 1920s, and resulted in women’s  right to vote  o The second wave was fighting for the right to work  To obtain the right to work the same job as men and receive the same  pay as men o They were also fighting for reproductive rights  o 1972 – Roe v Wade gave women the right to have abortions legally o Prisoners were obtaining rights:  o 1960s and 1970s were known as the Due process revolution  o Due process: your constitutional rights to be processed under the law  There are more women working in the criminal justice system, more visible crime,  there was a lot of aggression during this time  o Every time there is a fight for equality there is a backlash from people who  don’t believe in this progression   With social progress comes what can be viewed as deviant behavior  o The LGBTQ+ community were also on the rise and looking for equal rights   There was a type of chivalry towards women where they wouldn’t be arrested as  often and tried as often as men  o This chivalry disappeared when women began demanding equal rights  ▯ DATA SOURCES  UCR: Uniform Crime Report   Crimes reported to the police   Arrests  97% of Police department participates  Run by the FBI o Shown us that female offending increased by 12% from 1999 to 2009  o Along with this, the overall crime rate is going down consistently, with the  exception of female offenders  The homicide rate has escalated, most likely due to the most recent  racial tensions   o An alternate explanation for this rise in female crime rate is the next wave of  feminism: they’re being arrested and prosecuted much more than they have in  recent years  o It’s more about how we treat women, rather than women changing over time   o An increase in of prosecution in terms of prostitution o Many women are in jail for prostitution, theft, and drugs  Women are serving time for drugs due to their partner or spouse being  involved in dealing drugs, rather than they themselves being the one  selling the drugs  They wind up making phone calls from their houses, stashing drugs in  their houses, and driving the men around to make the deals  Prior to the 1980s/1990s, that wouldn’t result in the women  being sent to jail   ***Mandatory punishment laws set in place in the 1980s/1990s for  drug crimes substantially increased the prosecution and punishment for women involved in drug crimes*** (Minimum of 10 years for all drug  crimes) o Also a major increase in female prosecution for domestic cases  Pre 1970s nobody was arrested for domestic violence cases, along with the second wave of feminism came mandatory arrest if there is an  evidence of domestic violence  Due to men’s demand for equal treatment, most departments will  arrest both the victim and the abuser when a domestic violence case is  reported  NCVS: National Crime Victimization   Survey of households asking about how they have been victimized  Run by the FBI and the Census Bureau o Sample 38k households across the US to represent the population   Only surveys the traditional household   Only surveys victims over the age of 12 (excludes all cases of childhood sexual  assault)  ▯ These two NEVER have the same numbers, but we can tell they’re on track because they  follow the same trends (this shows there is some accuracy to both)  ▯ ***Both systematically under report crime***  Many people will not want to admit to being victimized  Does not report crimes in nursing homes, apartment complexes, college campuses, homeless  population, children under 12   Police departments fudge the numbers, both over reporting and under reporting   Both under report female victimization SUBSTANCIALLY   Domestic violence is definitely under reported for fear of backlash   Rape and sexual assault are extremely under reported  o Only 40% of sexual assaults are reported  o There’s shame and a stigma against these victims  o There’s also the fear of re victimization during the trial  o Women are also taught that this is almost the norm  o Many women believe that they won’t be believed if they report the rape or  assault  o There is a trend of women not getting justice so many believe they won’t get  justice if they report it   SRD: Self Report Data


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