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Chapter 4 Socialization Book Notes Page 74-95

by: rayparkerjr

Chapter 4 Socialization Book Notes Page 74-95 SOC 2110

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About this Document

These notes cover the material in Chapter 4 Pages 74-95
Introduction to Sociology
Richard Caston
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by rayparkerjr on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 2110 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Richard Caston in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology 101 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
Chapter 4 Socialization Book Notes Page 74-95  Socialization- process of social interaction that teaches the child intellectual, physical, and social skills needs to function as a member of society.  Personality- patterns of behaviors and ways of thinking and feeling that are distinctive for each individual. Becoming A Biology and Culture  Genes- inherited units of biological material. o Half from Mother and Half from father.  Eyes, Hair color  Pavlov (classical condition) and John B Watson favored nurture viewpoint with were based on (socialization experiences) vs nature (inherited characteristics)  Sociobiology “evolution psychology” or human behavioral ecology—Edward Wilson o Certain behavioral traits are inherited and help humans survive. Genes make certain behavior more likely than others. o Individuals act to ensure their genes be passed down from one generation to another (heredity) o Genes are a capacity for developing a certain behavior. –Stephen Gould  Human must have social attachments, which are meaningful interactions and affectionate bonds with others.  Attachment disorders- is when you are unable to trust and to form relationships with others.  Statuses- culturally and socially defined positions.  Social identity- total of all statues that define an individual.  Self- is the changing and yet enduring personality identity. Dimensions of Human Development for Self Cognitive Development -- Jean Pigett  Sensorimotor stage—Birth to age 2  Preoperational stage 2-7years old  Operational stage 7-12 years old Moral Development—Lawrence Kohlberg—Moral Development  Moral order- a shared view of right or wrong.  Not ery person is capable of thinking morality the same way. o Morality development in stages as well.  6 stages: o Orientation towards punishments o Orientation towards rewards o Orientation towards possible disapproval by others. o Orientation towards formal laws and fear of personal dishonor o Orientation towards peer values and democracy o Orientation towards one own set of values drpd bc of criticism Gender Identity  Males tend to be stronger than females o Females tend to have more endurance  More of a matter of nurture than nature Theories of Development  Charles Horton Cooley (1864-1929) o Looking glass theory to describe three stage process by which through each of us develops a sense of self.  How our actions appear to other  How other people judge these actions  Make some sort of self judgement based on presumed judgements of others. o Childhood is very important in determining our self o Perceptions are not always correct “W.I Thomas”  George Herbert Mean (1863-1931) o Believed the self is a total of the I portion and the me portion o The I portion of the self is wishes to have free expressions, to be active and spontaneous o The me portion of the self is made up of things learned through the socialization process from family, friends, peers, and school etc. o Significant others- refers to the individuals who are most important in our self-development such as parents friends, teachers etc. o Generalized others- view point, attitudes, and expectations of society as a whole or of a community of people whom are aware of and who are important to us. o He believed self develops in three stages  Preparatory stage- characterized by the child imitating the behaviors of others, which prepares the child for learning social role expectations.  Play stage—child has acquired language and begins not only to imitate the behavior but also to formulate role expectations.  Game stage- child learns that there are rules that specify the proper and correct relationship among the players.  Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) o Id (pleasure principle: wishful and illogical) DESIRE doesn’t know how it works. First born consist of drives and instincts that Freud believes every human inherits but which for most pat are unconscious o Ego (reality principle: helps id deal with reality) Goal is to satisfy Id tries not to only mediate in the eternal conflict btwn id and superego but also find socially acceptable ways for the ids drives to be expressed. o Baby cries, Ego knows he gets bottle when he cry cause he hungry. o Superego (conscience: parental voice within the person that battle id) doing the right thing. Represents society norms and moral values as learned primarily from our parents Ex)Devil- id , Head- ego Angel- superego  is the way to go.  Erik H. Erikson http://www.learn.ppdictionary. com/personality_development _4.htm  Stressed that development is a lifelong process and doesn’t not stop when you become an adult  Paid greater attention to social and the cultural; forces operating on the individual at each step. Early Socialization in American Society  The family is the primary world for the first few years for a child’s life. o Many of our gender roles expectations comes from based of models of females and males behaviors we have observed in our own home.  The school is institution intended to socialize children in selected skills and knowledge. o School breakfast and lunch program has become source of good balance nutrition for kids o They now must battles local communities and states officials who decided what will be taught  Such as AIDS education, sexuality, condoms, and teaching homosexuality. Parents may object but it’s the govt choice in the matter on what should be taught.  Peer groups- are individuals who are social groups. o They have the greater influence on things such as appearance, social activities, and dating.  However, parent play the major role of teaching the basic values and the development of desire to achieve long term goals *Daycare DOES Create Unruly Brats* But, The Kids Does Have Higher Vocabulary Through School Television, Movies and Videos Games  Media violence can increase aggressions bc of related factors o 1 creates positives attitudes, beliefs, and expectations abt solving pndblems with violence. o 2 creates a view that the world is a hostile place and there are not way to handle conflict without violence. o 3 leads to rehearsing more aggressive solution o 4 decreases likelihood of thinking of conflict, aggression, and violence as unacceptable alternatives.  TV-Y suitable for all ages  TV-7 suitable for ages 7 and up TV-14 unsuitable for under 14  TV-PG recommended parental guidance.  V for violence S for sexual situations L for language and D for suggestive dialog.  V chip invention allows parent to program out any show above desired level. 85% *Television Made Us The Designated Driver*  Adult socialization o Primary socialization- means individuals have mastered the basic information and skills required for members of society.  Learned a Language and can think logically to a degree.  Accepted basic norms and caules of the culture  Developed ability to pattern behavior in terms of these norms and values  Assumed a appropriate culture identity. o Adult socialization- is the process by which adults learn new statues and roles.  More aware than young people  Have more contrl on how they wished to be socialized.  Resocialization- involves exposure to ideas or values that in one way or another conflict with what was learned in childhood. Ex) College students  Erving Hoffman (1971) Total institutions- environments such as prisons and mental hospitals in which the participants are physically and socially isolated from the outside world. 1. Isolation frm outside world 2. Spending all of ones time in the same place with the esame people 3. Shedding individuals identity by giving up old clothes and possessions for standard uniforms 4. Clean break from past 5. Loss of freedom action o Four events of Adult Socialization  Marriage  Parent Hood  Work  Aging *We/ Americans Could NOT Be An Success At A Japanese Company*


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