ARTH 430, Week 2 Notes
ARTH 430, Week 2 Notes ARTH 430
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tia Goebel on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTH 430 at Montana State University taught by Dr. Todd Larkin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see 19th Century Art History in ARTH - Art History at Montana State University.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
September 7, 2016 Napoleon’s Rise: The Conquest of the Italian States and the Middle East I. The Conquest of Italy, 1796-97 Why is Napoleon so important to the French today? Napoleon’s tomb is frequently visited today – it’s quite fantastic, actually. A Church was transformed into a mausoleum for him; what should have been a monument to Louis the XIV is now a grand space devoted to Napoleon. Around Napoleon’s sarcophagus, several marble sculptures personify his major military successes and above are tapestries. ‘French-psycho drama’ the idea that you must have military might as a country to be important, matter of national pride Napoleon is from Ajaccio Corsica, along the Mediterranean Sea. He was born in 1769 as one of many children. He was able to get a scholarship to a military school in France even though he was from a very humble family situation. At the military school in Brienne, France: he did not fit in, so he studied VERY hard. He did not become ‘social’ and had a Corsican accent, people thought he was repugnant, and he would stay up late studying. Once the Revolution started, Napoleon was supportive. He wanted the aristocrats to lose power in order to destroy the customary favoritism. Due to his studies, Napoleon knew he was more skilled than his peers. Napoleon aligned himself with the Jacobin radicals, but not the ones that murdered Marat. The radicals loved his aggressive tactics and soon he became Head of the Army of the Interior because he was so good at putting down riots. Gradually, Napoleon, through his many successful battles, became a famous/successful general and was sent to multiple countries to conquer them with his regiment. He was sent to Italy and was able to annex many lands for France. Napoleon fell in love with a woman, Josephine, many years his senior who helped him commission his artwork… like….(Napoleon, unlike many other power figures, used the arts to his complete advantage). Antoine-Jean Gros, Napoleon Bonaparte at Arcole, 1796 (fighting the Austrians) He realized that art was good for his image. Seemed invincible in battle – became famous in France Whenever he won a battle or conquered an area, he used their resources to province his army because France was broke after the revolution. The Musee Napoleon opened up on March 25, 1802. (Remember Holt article.) Culture appropriation (the act of stealing art and culture from another region as a power play and sign of superiority) - Napoloeon did this, and it’s still present today. Anon., Napoleon Bonaparte Showing the Apollo Belvedere Showing he Apollo Belvedere to His Deputies, 1799 II. The Egyptian Campaign, 1798-99 Britain and France had always be enemies, all the way back to the Middle Ages. The plan was for the France to take control of the Middle East, since the British won many of the French colonies in the seven years war in the 1760/70’s . 160 scholars from the Institute de France created 10 volumes of text, plus illustrations all about Napoleon’s conquest in Egypt. ‘Title page to plates and Frontispiece to text of the Description de l’Egypte, vol. 1 1809’ Napoleon in this copy is made to look like Alexander the Great. (One the cover page of this book, we see images of Napoleon and scenes from his major battles – all designed to exhibit his power/control.) The Rosetta Stone was discovered (on accident) as the French were building a new fort. The Rosetta Stone displays Greek and hieroglyphs alongside each other – which allowed hieroglyphs to be interpreted accurately for the first time. As far as content, the Rosetta Stone was a decree on behalf King Ptolome V. Vivant Denon’s Voyages dans la base et la haute Egypte, 2 vols., 1802 – This showed illustrations of Egyptian landmarks. Deonon was a scholar and engraver that dedicated his book to Napoleon. Denon would eventually become Director of the Musee, and Napoleon’s head of the state propaganda machine. Denon saw the Egyptians as decadent and lazy. Since their structures were all very similarly built, the French made decrees about the Egyptian people like they were ‘stunted,’ and could ‘never compare to the works by Greeks and Romans.’ British Admiral Horatio Nelson annihilated Napoleon’s troops as they went along their campaign. The British sunk many of Napoleon’s boats in a bay with cannons. Napoleon was abandoned…somehow he rallied his troops, traveled to Syria, lost battles in Syria, but later won in Turkey. Somehow Napoleon returns a hero and a Consulate of 3 was established (government (Directory) from after the Revolution). Napoleon had himself made First Consul (like a dictator), and he promised freedom from government corruption, economic prosperity, and thirdly, lots more loot (cultural appropriation). Jean-Pierre Franque, Allegory of the Condition of France before Napoleon’s Return from Egypt, 1810
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