Nonverbal Communication SCOM 1000
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tahmonie Stubbs on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SCOM 1000 at Georgia State University taught by Worthington in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Key Terms Chapter 3 – Nonverbal Communication communication without words 1)The Functions of Nonverbal Communication a) Integrating Nonverbal and Verbal Messages i) Accents (raise your voice), Complements (smiling), Contradicts (winking to indicate lie), Regulates (lean forward to indicate that you want to speak), Repeats (motion with your hand to repeat your verbal “Let’s go”), and Substitutes (nod your head to say yes) b)Serving Varies Communication Functions i) Help us form and manage impressions, form & define relationships, structure conversation and social interaction, influence others, express emotions 2) The Channels of Nonverbal Communication a) The Body i) Body Movements (1) Emblems: body gesture that directly translate into words or phrases (i.e. thumbs-up for “good job”) (2) Illustrators: nonverbal behaviors that accompany & “illustrate” verbal messages (i.e. pointing to an object) (3) Affect displays: movements of the body or face that communicate emotional meaning (i.e. bouncing or frowning) (4) Regulators: behaviors that monitor, control, coordinate, or maintain the speaking of another individual (i.e. nodding your head) (5) Adaptors: gestures that satisfy some personal need and are emitted without conscious awareness (i.e. scratching or swinging your legs) (a) Self-adaptors (rubbing your nose), alter-adaptors (straightening a person’s tie), and object-adaptors (shredding a Styrofoam coffee cup) ii) Body Appearance (1) Height (2) Ethnicity (3) Weight (4) Hair (color, style, length) (5) Attractiveness b)Facial Communication i) Primary Affect Displays: Facial movements that express happiness, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, disgust, contempt, and interest ii) Facial management techniques enable you to control the extent to which you reveal the emotions you feel iii)Facial Feedback Hypothesis: facial display of emotion can lead to physiological and psychological changes c) Eye Communication (oculesis) i) Eye Contact & Eye Avoidance (1) Eye Avoidance (a) Helps avoid prying or signal lack of interest (2) Eye Contact (a) Functions: seek feedback, signal others to speak, indicate the nature of a relationship, or psychologically lessens physical distance ii) Pupil Dilation: shows level of interest and positive emotional arousal d)Space Communication i) Proxemic Distances (or Spatial Distance) (1) Intimate Distance: ranges from actual touching to 18in, presence of the other individual is unmistakable (2) Personal Distance: ranges from 18in to 4ft (3) Social Distance: ranges from 4 to 12ft (4) Public Distance: ranges from 12 to more than 15ft ii) Treatment of space is influenced by status, culture, context, subject matter, gender, age, and positive or negative evaluation of the other person iii)Territoriality – possessive or ownership reaction to an area of space or to particular objects (1) Territory Types (a) Primary Territories: your exclusive preserve (ex. home field advantage) (b) Secondary Territories: don’t belong to you, but are associated with you (c) Public Territories: open to all people (ex. parks) (2) Territory Markers (a) Central Markers: items you place in a territory to reserve it (books on your desk) (b) Boundary Markers: set boundaries that divide your territory from “theirs” (armrests at the movie theater) (c) Earmarkers: indicate your possession of a territory or object (graffiti or nameplates) e) Artifactual Communication i) Messages conveyed through human-made articles ii) Color Communication: affect us physiologically; influences perceptions and behaviors iii)Clothing & Body Adornment: people make inferences about who you are by how you dress or look iv)Space Decoration: people make inferences about you based on the absence of items or the items included in your home/room (ex. no television or expensive furniture) f) Touch Communication (haptics) i) Touch Avoidance: the desire to avoid touching and being touched by others ii) 5 Meanings of Touch: positive affect (support or affection), playfulness (affectionately/aggressively), control (nonverbal dominance), ritualistic (greetings and departures – hugging or shaking hands), and task-related (performance of some function – helping someone out of a car) g)Paralanguage: The Vocal Channel i) How you say something; including stress and pitch, voice quality, rate, volume, rhythm, as well as pauses and hesitations ii) Helps us make judgments about people, their emotions, and their believability h)Silence i) Allows speakers time to think, formulate, and organize their verbal communications ii) Used as a weapon to hurt others (silent treatment) iii)Used as a “response to personal anxiety,” shyness, or threats iv)Used to prevent communication of certain messages v) Used to communicate emotional responses vi)Used to avoid responsibility for any wrongdoing or when you have nothing to say i) Time – Temporal Communication (chronemics) i) How you organize, react, and communicate messages through time j) Smell Communication – Olfactory Communication i) Important Messages of Scent: (1) Attraction messages: enhance attractiveness to others and themselves (2) Taste messages: smell stimulate appetites (3) Memory messages: recall situations when you encounter a similar smell (4) Identification messages: create an image or identity for a product 3)Culture and Nonverbal Communication a)Researches have focused on facial expressions and displays, gesture, eye communication, meanings of colors, appropriateness and uses of touch, uses of silence, and the ways different cultures treat time
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