PY 370 Chapter 9 Notes
PY 370 Chapter 9 Notes PY 370
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gretchen Pierce on Friday March 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PY 370 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Sheila Black in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see History and Systems in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 03/27/15
PY 370 Exam 3 Chapter 9 Darwin Galton Cattell Iames and Hall 1 Darwin s theory of evolution in uences psychology 2 Psychologists focused on issues such as the usefulness of psychological functions 3 Galton a Darwin s cousin b Interest in individual differences measured through psychological testing c Psychological testing their ability to respond to stimuli etc d Sexist Views i Wrongly assumed that men were more sensitive to perceptual stimuli including taste coffee e Individual differences in imagery i Experts often produced vivid mental images while performing memory chess boards ii Association tests iii Galton s own performance f Tested over 7000 people g Interest in Cognition i Galton studied ways to improve memory 1 Creating associations 2 Imagery to improve memory h Galton in uenced experimental psychologists wanted empirical objected data i Believed that abilities were inherited and normally distributed bell curve i Most people on memory intelligence etc would be middle of bell curve 68 of people ii Few people are at tail ends j Average Joe i Galton developed the concept of the average manquot and central tendencies ii Pointed out that with statistics behavioral scientists could make predictions about a population 1 Predictions about individuals awed k Famous for Eugenics i He wanted to use Eugenics to improve the human race ii He wanted individuals of the elite class to marry each other to improve nation s gene pool iii He founded Eugenics society iv Eugenics associated with autrocities V Eugenics used to justify discrimination and even genocide Hereditary Genius in families Galton s elite families showed disproportionate concentration of eminence Galton argued for definitive prof that individuals inherit superior abilities Twins i If identical twins were more similar than fraternal twins then their genes would matter more ii People became interested in the role of heredity in determining psychological characteristics iii Minnesota Twin Study iv Psychometric tests included tests of intelligence attention mental health and artistic ability etc v There were also tests measuring physical health vi Differences have to be heredity vii The study did find that identical twins were remarkably similar even when they had been separated at birth Galton and Human Faculties 1 Iames McKeen Cattell r39r39worhrn 9962 d Mentored by Wundt In uenced by Galton Studied memory had students rank stimuli He was a eugenicist encouraged the so called quotelitequot to have large families For faculty governance Showed distain for University Administration Opposed war and supported son whens on arrested Dismissed fired from University Received compensation but never reinstated He was the person established journal Psychological Reviewquot he found it because he was upset with another journal Bought the rights to quotSciencequot Experimented with drugs 2 William Iames a b America s Psychologist Suffered from depression and psychosomatic illnesses even contemplated suicide Taught himself psychology Taught physiology and psychology at Harvard Principles of Psychology i Very Readable instant success ii Taught Theodore Roosevelt f James and the MindBody Relation i Psychosomatic illnesses ii Pragmatism belief that you should find the course of life that works best for you without hurting anyone else iii Used typology to distinguish the personalities of rationalists from empiricists g James as Psychologist i Defined characteristics of consciousness ii Criticized Wundt and Titchener s introspection h Characteristics of Consciousness i It is personal ii It is everchanging iii It is continuous iv It is selective i IamesLange Theory of Emotion i First you experience the physiological reaction of an experience ii Second Experience emotion occurs iii Walter B Cannon disagreed with Iames theory iv Although Cannon initially said that the type of arousal associated with various emotions is the same there is now evidence that physiological reactions differ as a function of various emotions j Facial Feedback Hypothesis i If you configure your face in a way to express a mood it effects how you feel ii Evidence that mood changes as a function of facial expression iii Physiological cues in uence the way you feel iv Consistent with Iames notion that emotions based on physiological feedback with brain k Habits Iames i Plasticity and the nervous system ii Make nervous system an ally instead of enemy iii If you have a habit it will effect the nervous system and how it reacts neurons become activated 3 Granville Stanley Hall a First research lab earmarked for psychology b Founded American Journal of Psychology c Clark University i Hall became president of Clark University ii University accused of animal cruelty iii While at Clark established Journal of Genetic Psychology iv Instrumental in the founding of the American Psychological Association ASA oreHaw j Hall was most famous for Developmental Psychology i Hall explored the mental life of children ii He proposed the idea that adolescence was a stressful time iii He developed an interest in late adulthood toward the end of his life Hall was a Eugenicist Had racist views Despite his views he did award more PhD s to African Americans than any other psychologist at that time By 1898 3034 psychologists received their PhD s under Hall Famous for arranging for Freud and lung to speak to an American audience Hall had mixed emotions about psychology toward the end of his life 4 Francis Cecil Sumner wpgpgs 5 First African American to receive a PhD in psychology Entered college at 15 graduated magna cum laude 2nd Bachelor Degree in English Hall was supportive of Sumner receiving his PhD He received his PhD in 1920 Sumner established psychology as a separate discipline at Howard University African American psychologists speak out about the importance of considering culture when evaluating tests Canady the importance of building a rapport between the test administrator and testtaker Other psychologists spoke out about considering culture and language when evaluating test results 6 Kenneth and Mamie Clark a Kenneth and Mamie Clark work helped to overturn the doctrine of separate but equalquot b Thurgood Marshall had to show that segregation led to inequality 9 e He argued segregation had a negative impact on selfesteem The Doll Studies i Participants shown dolls varied in skin colors ii What doll do you want to play with White iii What doll is bad Black iv Draw what looks like you Would always dry with lighter skin tone Kenneth Clark testified in 34 cases leading to Supreme Court cases 7 Mary Whiton Calkins a 14th president of APA and 1St woman to hold the office b Earned a PhD under William James but was refused the degree by Harvard Cooperation 8 Margaret Floy Washburn PhD a 1St woman to earn a doctoral degree in American psychology 1894 b University trustees refused to grant her the degree c At the time married woman could not serve as teachers or professors Thus she never married d A prolific researcher
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