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Week 3 Notes

by: Brittney Tilghman

Week 3 Notes Esc 1510

Brittney Tilghman

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Finished up the Eras of Conservation Movements and begins the discussion of evolution.
Environmental Science 2
Dr. Bradley Reynolds
Class Notes
environmental, Science
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittney Tilghman on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Esc 1510 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Dr. Bradley Reynolds in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
Week 3 Environmental Science Notes  Second Era: 1890-1909 - Marked by western settlement reaching the Pacific Ocean - Transcontinental railroad: from Mississippi River Pacific (crucial to westward expansion) - When we hit the Pacific, we were forced to realize that the land was limited and resources finite. - Helped Western Expansion 1. Railroad 2. Gold Rush 3. Homestead Act - Allowed settlers with no credit to get property - Government gave you 160 acres - Had to build a house, dig a well, have at least broke(plowed) 10 acres, fenced space - At one time, 60 million bison. Goes down to less than 1000. o Bounced back (kinda) - Passenger Pigeon, extinct now o 5-6 billion in North America o Professional pigeon hunters and unregulated hunting responsible for the extinction this species. o Zero today, last one died in 1914 - Science Concepts o Biotic Succession: H.C. Cowles  Maturing of ecosystem over time  Succession: process by which a community recovers after a disturbance.  Ecological climax: achieved level of stability  Biotic succession showed us the ecosystems change over a time scale that we humans impact. o Ecology: Sir Arthur George Tansly  Study of living organisms and their interaction with the environment.  “oikos”-family household  Economy of nature  Gave us the tools we needed to manage those finite resources. - Naturalist Writers o John Muir: Preservationist (protests nature for natures sake) because its beautiful. NPS (National Parks Service) o Gifford Pinchot: Conservationist (but let’s use those resources for the good of humanity.) NFS (National Forests Service) - New Conservation Institutions o U.S. Forest Service  Gifford Pinchot (first)  Lands managed by the “Wise Use Principle” greatest benefit, greatest number of people, greatest amount of time o National Wildlife Refuge System  Pelican Island Refuge  Teddy Roosevelt “very well then, I so declare it” (first time land had been set aside for conservation of biodiversity) o Antiquities Act: Empowers the President to designate national monuments.  U.S. Parks and Monuments System  Clinton protected 1.9 million acres in Utah with the Grand Staircase Monument  Third Era: 1930-1949 - Marked by the Dust Bowl (major ecological disaster) o Improper farming techniques and drought led to wind erosion. o FIRST major ecological disaster o Replaced grasses with row crops o Poor farming techniques and improper land management o 1935: Dust Bowl Rehabilitation - Science concept o Ecosystem: community of organisms and their nonliving environment. - Naturalist Writers o Aldo Leopold: Sand County Almanac  Wildlife scientific game management  The Land Ethic: treat the land with respect. Personal values should extend to the natural world. o Margory Stoneman Douglas  The Everglades: River of Grass  “Mother of the Everglades”  Everglades: loads of invasive species ** Subtropical Environment - New Conservation Institutions o CCC: Civilian Conservation Corp 1. Help along the development of our country’s natural resources. 2. Provide employment o Soil Conservation Services  Help manage America’s private lands  Now called “Natural Resources Conservation Services” o U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service  The angency for protection of biodiversity  Enforces Federal wildlife protection laws  Oversee Endangered Species Program o TVA: Tennessee Valley Authorities  Allowed the development of resources in the Tennessee valley  3 major goals: navigation, flood control, and electrical power  Fourth era: 1960-1975 - Marked by the recognition of pollution - Era of Pollution and population - Cyhooga River, Ohio… so polluted it caught on fire o 1972: Clean Water Act - Science Concept: Environment analysis o The study of the impact of pollutants on the environment - Naturalist Writers o Paul Erhlich (The Population Bomb)  1800: 1 billion  1960: 3 billion people o Rachel Carson: Silent Spring  Took on the chemical companies (with no university back up)  The negatives of DDT - New Conservation Institutions o Wilderness Act of 1964: Set aside wilderness reservations  Roadless, no motorized anything  Inside National parks, refuges, etc  Represents a major shift in thought  Originally protected 9 million acres  now 106 million acres *most wilderness is managed by National Parks Services (over half)* o U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA):safeguard human health and natural environment (1970) 1. Sets safe levels for contaminants in the environment 2. Work through specific legislation  Fifth Era: 1990 to present - Marked by the loss of Biodiversity (disappearing faster than dinosaurs) - Biodiversity Crisis - New Science Concept o Emergence of computer-based technologies study the environment  Remote sensing  Seismographs  GIS: Geographic Information Systems - Naturalist Writers o E.O. Wilson  Diversity of Life  World’s most important for the biodiversity crisis.  Calls for spiritualizing the environmental movement as Earth endures the greatest mass extinction in 65 million years.  Biophilia: love of life. (Innate, internal desire to be close to nature) - New Conservation Institutions o National Biological Service (1993): federal agency managing biodiversity o Society for Conservation Biology: professional organization  Dedicated to promoting the scientific study of the phenomena that affect the maintenance, loss, and restoration of biological diversity  Meeting in Chattanooga, 2008 o Earth Summit: 1992, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  Largest international meeting on the environment  Sustainable development: ecology, economy, equity  Tried to solve the problems of both developed nations and developing nations  International treaties 1. Convention on Climate Change (US wouldn’t sign until it was dramatically scaled back.) 2. Convention on Biodiversity (US refused to sign completely)  Habitat destruction is what drives the Biodiversity Crisis, followed by invasive species and overexploitation.  Microevolution: How Populations Evolve - Individuals do not evolve, populations evolve  Population: group of individuals that mate with one another to produce viable offspring.  Micro- vs Macroevolution - Microevolution: small scale changes in gene frequencies in a population over a few generations. - Macroevolution: large scale changes in gene frequencies in a population over a long period of time. May result in a new species.


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