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PSY 320 Week 3 Notes

by: Erin Wade

PSY 320 Week 3 Notes PSY 320

Erin Wade
GPA 3.9

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About this Document

Lecture notes from week 3 Prof Amberg
Abnormal Psychology
Martha D Amberg
Class Notes
Psychology, PSY320, Ambers, Abnomalpsych
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erin Wade on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 320 at Colorado State University taught by Martha D Amberg in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
9/7/16  Prevention Programs  ­ Primary prevention ­ stopping the development of disorders before they start  ● Help people the best we can from very early stages and create environment that  does not feed development of disorders  ­ Secondary prevention ­ detecting a disorder at its earliest stages to prevent the  development of the full­blown disorder  ● When people are young children, try to detect problems then and help them learn  coping skills and techniques  ­ Tertiary prevention ­ preventing relapse and reducing the impact of the disorder on the  person’s quality of life  ● After the fact, doing the best they can    Chapter 3    Assessment Tools  ­ Validity ­ accuracy, testing what we think we are  ­ Reliability ­ consistency, get similar results if you repeat test  ­ Standardization ­ standard method of administering a test, to try to ensure validity and  reliability  ● Prevents influence of extraneous factors    Types of Validity  ­ Face validity ­ it looks like it measures what it should  ­ Construct validity ­ whether it actually measures what it is supposed to  ­ Content validity ­ contains every important aspect, don’t just focus in on one specific  point  ­ Concurrent validity ­ same results as other tests  ­ Predictive validity ­ able to predict behavior (likelihood of someone’s depression  escalating to self harm, or ACT predicting performance in college)    Types of Reliability  ­ Test­retest reliability ­ multiple administrations of test to check for similar results  ­ Alternate forms ­ 2 versions of test to see if you are actually getting the same information  with both  ­ Split half ­ randomly divide test into two versions and see how they correlate with each  other  ­ Internal reliability ­ different parts produce similar responses  ­ Interrater/Interjudge reliability ­ How similarly different raters/interviewers are coding  data/answers        Clinical Interview  ­ Initial interview ­ mental status exam  ● Appearance and behavior ­ self care reflects how we feel  ● Thought processes ­ how long it takes them to answer a question/how they react  to questions  ● Mood and affect ­ laughing when talking about something funny, being sad when  talking about sad topics  ● Intellectual functioning  ● Orientation  ­ Structured Interview ­ constitute a series of questions about symptoms experienced  currently or in the past  ● Has a standardized format  ● Concrete criteria is used to score person’s answers  ● Standardization is good, get a lot of information, but since there is a concrete  format you may not ask a question that you should have    Symptoms Questionnaire  ­ Cover variety of symptoms, representing several different disorders  ­ Beck depression inventory (BDI)  ● 21 items, each describes four levels of a symptoms of depression  ● Criticism ­ does not distinguish clinical depression from general distress    Personality Inventories  ­ Questionnaires to assess typical ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving  ● Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)  ○ MMPI­2 ­ 567 true/false questions  ○ People lose interest because it is so long, but it is still the most used  MMPI­2 Validity Scales  ­ The ? Scale  ​ ­ # items unanswered “cannot say”  ● 30+ invalid  ­ Lie​ (L) ­ deliberately answering in dishonest manner  ● Present in favorable light ­ unrealistic  ­ F​ ­ detect unusual or atypical ways of answering the test items  ● Randomly fill out the test  ● Faking bad or good  ● Back F​ (F^b) ­ same issues as the F scale, except only during the last half of the  test  ● High F and Fb scale invalidates the whole test  ­ K​ ­ identify psychopathology in people who otherwise would have profiles within the  normal range. It measures self­control, and family and interpersonal relationships    Behavioral Observation  ­ Clinician observes and identifies what precedes and follows behaviors  ● Advantage ­ not relying on individuals’ reporting and interpretation  ● Disadvantage ­ alter behavior when being watched    9/9/16  Self­Monitoring  ­ Keeping track of own behavior  ● Biases  ○ They may not notice certain behaviors that they are displaying  ○ Reluctance to report behavior that they may not be proud of    Intelligence Tests  ­ Measures intellectual strengths and weaknesses  ● Abstract reasoning  ● Verbal fluency   ● Spatial memory  ­ Designed to identify students that may be struggling in order to help them  ­ Consensus of intelligence?  ● IQ tests maybe don’t measure all areas of intelligence  ­ Biased toward middle­ and upper­class educated European Americans    Neuropsychological Tests  ­ Detect cognitive deficits related to brain structures  ­ Bender­Gestalt ­ assesses sensorimotor skills  ● Reproduce set of nine drawings  ● Differentiates brain damage from those without brain damage  ○ Does not reliably identify specific type of damage    Brain­Imaging Techniques  ­ Computerized tomography (CT)  ● Elevated cat scan  ● Highlight lesions, but doesn’t tell us anything about when the brain is in action  ­ Positron­emission tomography (PET)  ● Inject something and watch it move through the brain  ● Highlight lesions  ­ Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)  ­ Magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI)    Projective Tests  ­ Provide an ambiguous stimuli  ● Response will reflect current concerns and feelings  ● Relationships  ● Conflicts and desires  ­ Useful in:  ● Uncovering unconscious issues  ● Resistant or heavily biasing information  ­ Frequently used tests:  ● Rorschach Inkblot Test  ○ Ambiguous symmetrical inkblots  ● Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)    Challenges in Assessment  ­ Resistance and inability to provide information  ­ Evaluating children  ● Hard to get them to focus  ● Can’t ask them straight out questions about rough things  ­ Evaluating individuals across cultures  ● Language barriers  ● Cultural barriers    Diagnosis  ­ Syndrome ­ set of symptoms that occur together and what that specific set represents  ● Syndromes tend to co­occur within individuals ­ multiple diagnoses in the same  person  ­ Classification system ­ rules to determine whether symptoms are a part of a syndrome  ● Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) 


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