Week 1 Media Industries (lectures 1 and 2)
Week 1 Media Industries (lectures 1 and 2) RTV 3001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rae Knopik on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to RTV 3001 at University of Florida taught by Dr. William A. Renkus in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Media Industries in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Dr. William Renkus Earliest memory of a television show and its impact: ● This class surveys electronic media industries and professions ● Media industries are now a vital part of our lives, their have a pervasive presence in every aspect of modern day living. ○ they help todefine our very existence ○ you may not c are how you receive all of the information (aka which medium it comes across to you), but you do care about programming, services, access, and prices. To know these industries you must know ● Their histories ● The technologies themselves ● Commercial structures: media does not exist within a vacuum. US media is influenced by capitalism and US culture. ● Regulations (laws) ● Specific programming: the creation of content, if is based on product? (cash, you are selling your product) ● What ratings are and what they mean to corporations: ○ a specific, statistical construct of measuring who and how many people are consuming a product aka actual viewers. If you want to make money you have to prove that your ratings are high. As technology develops, who controls the technology? The centralized government or entrepreneurs? Big business? ● In the US: We have a free market system with limited government regulation. How we interact with media gives them great influence over our lives and culture: ● Each form of media in the past has had built in limitations of space and time: ○ The internet has unlimited space and time, so our media is changing immensely. ○ Books/pamphlets/movies have a limited number of pages/time. ● When government controls the media, we cannot communicate: ○ the shutdown of the internet sources of Egypt: people who were trying to overthrow the government could not communicate. ● In this way the media has real and tangible political power over human beings. Terms: Electronic: the human manipulation of electronic energy to encode information and to send it from one place to another. Media: conduits/carriers of human communication that can reach great numbers of people ● print, radio, tv, satellite, the internet. Telecommunication: dissemination of messages over a great distance. Broadcasting: the distribution of seeds (comes from an agriculture synonym). It is when a noun (person, place, thing, or idea) goes from one source to many other outlets. Convergence: when corporations or national entities consume and consolidate smaller technologies. The big fish swallow the little fish and grow bigger. ● Very common in US media. ○ The telephone (invented in the 19th century) combined point to point contact all across the country (like the telegraph) with instantaneous communication and the element of voice. ● To understand today’s products, you need to realize the deep historical roots of products: what brought the iphone to be? ○ The coming together of computing, telecommunications, and media in a digital environment. The big fish swallow the little fish and grow bigger. There are three different types: ● There are three types of convergence: 1. Technological convergence: T he rapid interchangeable aspects of technological products. a. All types of media are converging into a digital media form = your iphone is also your ipod, your map, your notebook, etc 2. Economic convergence: The merging of media corporations. a. Comcasts owns NBC Universal. Fewer and fewer corporations own media in the US. b. Disney has ESPN, motion pictures, and ABC, it makes TV programs and has a voice on the internet. 3. Cultural convergence: shared values, beliefs and practices influenced by how we create, consume, and distribute media. a. The analogy of human beings are like pickles in vinegar. We are all different cucumbers but in the vinegar and salt, we start to resemble each other and share beliefs and ideas. b. Messages are shaped by the medium in which they are placed: Print medium makes linear structure (words on a page). Internet information comes in a mosaic (webpage). he way you get information changes the way you think about it. Centralized vs converged media organizations: 1. Functions of media (when controlled by a single individual): a. Production b. Distribution c. Marketing d. Advertising 2. Functions of media may be decentralized (more diffused methods of production, distribution, marketing and advertising.) More of a democratic form of structure. Traditional content: a programming director decides what viewers would see and when. ● Little input from viewers. On demand content: audiences can time shift and decide what they want to see ● Netflix, VCR, DVR Digitalized content: instantaneous or at any time of the day ● Changes how we consume entertainment and information ● We have a 24/7 instantaneous media environment. So we are always plugged in. and the media is mobile. We can take it everywhere. ● It assumes equal access to a variety of advanced technologies. ○ However, broadband connection makes this unequal from place to place. Wiki Content: audiences contribute to production and edit at will. The functions of Mass communications (uses and gratifications, the study of usage) ● Surveillances: journalism and information. ● Connectivity: Fear of Missing Out (FOMO), as well as the relaxation and companionship of a cell phone ● News: However it has the potential of too much bad news and a disheartened audience. ○ Mean World Syndrome: If you see so much violence in the news you start to see the world as a mean place full of people out to get you. ● Correlation: What the media does to help frame what’s happening, putting events into context and giving meaning to them. ○ Journalism, advertising, etc can help shape (but not hypnotize) public opinion. ● Cultural transmission: how information spreads from one generation to the next about cultural norms (what is socially acceptable or cool, the rules of society.) ○ Sometimes these can cross internationally. How do you know what to wear when you wake up in the morning? “You all look the same.” ○ Includes socialization/culturalization which helps move us forward and be more accepting of others. INTRO TO MEDIA INDUSTRIES: TELEGRAPH, RADIO, AND TELEPHONE Before the telegraph: Information was transferred by the fastest runner you had. Note* You don’t need to study exact dates. Know names a general time frames. I. TELEGRAPH ● Electromagnetic energy can be transmitted between two points: ○ James Maxwell theorizes that electromagnetic energy exists. einrich Hertz demonstrates that it exists. ● Telegraph (invented in 1844 iddle of the 19th Century) was invented by amuel Morse ○ This destroyed the distinction between space and time. The first telegraph went from DC to baltimore “What hath God wrought?” ○ First electronic media to become very successful. II. TELEPHONE: ● Send voice from one place to another, invented by A lexander Graham Bell (in 1877 Mid to late 19th century) ● Like the telegraph, the telephone supported itself through commercial means, and they are point to point communications (source to receiver). ● However, this 19th century communication was wired. ○ Weaknesses: 1) concern of construction, lots of wires and 2) maintenance is complex. Guglielmo Marconi ● Started experimenting with radio transmitters and receivers. Eventually he developed a powerful wireless business. ○ His electronic waves first traveled through the air across the house to ring a bell. Eventually the pulse distance grew. ● The idea was rejected in Italy, so he went to England where it was patented in 1896 (very end of 19th century) as the “wireless telegraph.” He became a multimillionaire and expanded to America. Reginald Fessenden ● 1906 (20th century), first person who was credited with transmitting voice and music through the air (it was very faint). Lee De Forest ● Credited with the “Audion” a glass enclosed tube that amplified weak radio signals. It harnessed electromagnetic waves. ● Lawsuits against him, including Marconi’s American company. Development of Wireless ● It was used on boats and helped to prevent maritime disasters ○ The Titanic had radio operators on board! A telegraph operator was onboard, but there was no one on the telegraph key to call for help. This was within the law at the time. So in 1912, over 1,000 people perish. ● The law at the time: W ireless Ship Act of 1910 ( first radio law): a ship had to have somebody on the telegraph key, but did not specify that you had to be there for more than 8 hours. ● Consequently: Congress is spurred to action = R adio act of 1912: Regulatory Authority to Secretary of Commerce: Set frequencies and hours of operation (24/7), Had to issue License on Application in order to use electronic media.