Personality Psychology, Week 1 notes
Personality Psychology, Week 1 notes 374
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Sinner on Friday September 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 374 at Catholic University of America taught by Parkhurst, J. in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Personality Psychology in Psychology at Catholic University of America.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Chapter 1: Personality psychology= “the scientific study of the psychological forces that make people uniquely themselves” (Friedman & Schustack p 500) States Traits 8 aspects that make up personality Paradigms* that correlate with aspects 1. Unconscious 1. Psychoanalytic 2. Ego 2. Neo-Analytic/Ego 3. Biological 3. Biological 4. Learning 4. Behaviorist 5. Cognition 5. Cognitive 6. Traits 6. Trait 7. Spiritual 7. Humanistic/Existential 8. Interaction 8. Interactionist *Paradigm/Theory= set of hypothesis must be testable and observable - If it is not testable then it is a correlation - Some theories are inductive or deductive Deductive= take rules and try to see what is common or correlates (what do things boil down to) Inductive= continuously adding new information (what do things add up to) - None of the theories are enough alone, but rather need all together as a whole o [Gestalt: the sum of a part is greater than many little parts] - Need to be able to consider many different theories for treatments Personality Psychology History Development through art Originated in ancient Greece people were fascinated by personality and certain traits o Acting o Theater Shakespeare uses archetype in his work o Archetype= general theme that occurs to many people Modern day actors encompass a character they are playing o Weight loss/gain o Changing of hair or appearance Development through religion People wanted to know why people were not acting in a Godly way since people were made in image and likeness of God o Curiosity stemmed from here through Christianity, Judaism, and other Christian faiths Development through Evolution Adaptive traits are stronger and the weaker ones are dying out o Domination of stronger personalities as people adapted to the world *evolution has changed the way people perceive gender Development through Freud and WWI Assessment tests o used to determine people’s traits to best place them for the war IQ tests/cognitive school testing o Came next after assessment tests to use in schools for educational purposes Personality tests o Personality profile= definition of someone’s traits *cannot overgeneralize in a profile because people are inconsistent and a profile can’t describe a person in all situations Development through Culture Anthropologist Margaret Mead said “your personality is a derivative of culture” o Dictates how you act at certain times and places *personality can’t exist without culture Nomolythic Approach rules that govern everything Idiographic Approach unique individual ****Theory is greatest defense**** Chapter 2: Assessment 1. Subjective assessment 2. Objective assessment 3. Projective assessment When performing any of these need to use reliability and validity Types of validity Convergent use several instruments to converge validity Discriminant discriminate what experiment is looking for and what not looking for Construct think of alternate hypothesis to make sure stay on the construct Criterion-related correlation is needed Content whole assessment impacts other parts *need to be valid with more than one type of validity to make sure it is completely valid -need to make sure the experimenter can ask the same concept in several different ways inter-correlated - Distribution has to deal with validity normal distribution Confounds= things that change people’s assessments Acquiescence o When people are in a strange environment they will act differently Social desirability o People want to be liked and this influences answers during assessments Lie/Fake scales o On some tests there are questions to detect lying and faking (gets around the validity problem) Bias o All tests make assumptions of groups taking tests (against normal distributions/representation of population) Ex: race, ethnicity, gender, age, language, socio-economic status, region, cultural, religious, sexuality, etc.
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